[Editor's Note] This series is a reprint of The Epoch Times' English translation of the book How the Specter of Communism Is Ruling Our World by the editorial team of Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party.

Table of Contents of the Book

How the Specter of Communism Is Ruling Our World: PrefaceHow the Specter of Communism Is Ruling Our World: IntroductionChapter One: The Specter’s Strategies for Destroying HumanityChapter Two: Communism’s European BeginningsChapter Three: Tyranny in the EastChapter Four: Exporting RevolutionChapter Five: Infiltrating the WestChapter Six: The Revolt Against GodChapter Seven: The Destruction of the FamilyChapter Eight: How Communism Sows Chaos in PoliticsChapter Nine: The Communist Economic TrapChapter Ten: Using the Law for EvilChapter Eleven: Desecrating the ArtsChapter Twelve: Sabotaging EducationChapter Thirteen: Hijacking the MediaChapter Fourteen: Popular Culture – A Decadent IndulgenceChapter Fifteen: The Communist Roots of TerrorismChapter Sixteen: The Communism Behind EnvironmentalismChapter Seventeen: Globalization – Communism at Its CoreChapter Eighteen: The Chinese Communist Party’s Global AmbitionsHow the Specter of Communism Is Ruling Our World: Conclusion

What is Included in This Part?

Chapter Eighteen: The Chinese Communist Party’s Global Ambitions


1. The Chinese Communist Party’s Ambition to Replace the United States and Dominate the Worlda. The CCP Has Always Aimed for World Dominationb. World Domination Requires Defeating the United Statesc. The CCP Has a Multi-Pronged Strategy to Subvert and Contain the United Statesd. The CCP Incites Anti-US Hatred to Prepare for War With Americae. The CCP No Longer Conceals Its Intentions in the Sino-US Relationship

2. Communist China’s Strategies for World Dominationa. One Belt, One Road Initiative Is Territorial Expansion Masked as Globalizationb. The CCP’s Great Periphery Strategy Aims to Exclude the US From the Asia-Pacific Regionc. Divide and Conquer in Europe Serves to Create a Split With the United Statesd. The CCP Exports the ‘Chinese Model’ to Colonize Africae. Advancing Into Latin America, Encroaching on America’s Backyardf. Communist China Flaunts Its Military Ambitions

3. ‘Unrestricted Warfare’ With Chinese Communist Characteristicsa. The CCP Promotes Party Culture Worldwideb. United Front Work Aims to Disintegrate the Free World From Withinc. Unrestricted Economic Warfare Is the CCP’s Heavy Weaponryd. The CCP Uses the Masses for Espionagee. Unrestricted Warfare Takes Many Forms

4. The ‘China Model’ and Its Destructive Impact

5. Lessons Learned and the Way Outa. The Policy of Appeasement Was a Grave Mistakeb. Why Did the West Get China Wrong?c. What Is the Way Out?


Conclusion: How the Specter of Communism Is Ruling Our World




The beginning of the twentieth century saw the Soviet communists violently seize power in Russia. The success of this revolution, in turn, paved the way for the communist specter’s primary actor: the Chinese Communist Party.

The CCP was established in 1921 by agents of the Far Eastern branch of the Communist International. Over the next several decades, the Soviet Union played a major role on the world stage, confronting the Western democratic camp in the Cold War. Westerners took the Soviet Union and its satellite communist regimes in Eastern Europe to be the archetypical communist adversary. The CCP, meanwhile, had ample time to establish and mature its regime.

The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, leaving the CCP regime alone on the world stage. Communist China took a new, nonconfrontational approach, enticing the rest of the world to engage with its capitalist market economy while retaining a totalitarian political system. Therefore, many Western scholars, entrepreneurs, and politicians did not regard the CCP as a communist party, but rather considered it a variant, at most.

This could not be further from the truth. The CCP has brought the defining characteristics of communist ideology — deceit, malice, and struggle — to the apex, creating a regime that employs the most pernicious and insidious methods of political intrigue developed over thousands of years of human history. The CCP seduces people with profits, controls them with power, and deceives them with lies. It has cultivated its demonic technique to the point of mastery.

China is home to five thousand years of history and a splendid traditional heritage, which have earned that ancient land and its people respect and admiration the world over. The CCP has capitalized on these positive sentiments. After seizing power and taking the Chinese people captive, it muddled the concepts of the Chinese nation and the CCP regime. It presented its ambitions under the camouflage of China’s “peaceful rise,” making it difficult for the international community to understand its true motives.

But the essential nature of the CCP has never changed. The Party’s strategy of economic engagement is simply to use the “nutrition of the capitalist body” to strengthen its own socialist body, to stabilize its rule, and to realize its ambitions, rather than to enable China to see true prosperity and strength. [1] In practice, its methods disregard basic ethics and universal values.

The countries that mankind has founded exist on the basis of their founders’ wisdom and faith in the Divine. Human society must follow the standards of conduct laid down by the Creator: to maintain high moral character, protect the right to private property, and adhere to universal values. The economic development of a normal society needs to be supported by corresponding moral standards.

But the CCP’s Party-state has followed a diametrically opposite path, creating a fast-rising economic abomination that has encouraged severe moral degeneracy. The evil specter’s motivation for arranging China’s “economic miracle” is simple: Without economic strength, the CCP regime would have no persuasive influence with which to dictate its terms to the world. These arrangements are not intended to benefit China or the Chinese people, but to play on people’s worship of money and wealth so that the world will align with the CCP in economic cooperation and international affairs.

Internally, the Communist Party rules through tyranny and the most ruthless aspects of the capitalist system. It rewards evil and punishes good, making the worst individuals into society’s most successful. Its policies magnify the evil side of human nature, using atheism to create a state of utter degeneracy in which people have no moral qualms.

When operating abroad, the CCP regime advocates the ideology of “Chinese characteristics,” meaning communism, and offers powerful economic incentives as a lure to have the people of the free world let down their guard, abandon moral principles, and turn a blind eye to the CCP’s vast abuses of human rights and its persecution of religion. Many politicians and corporations in Western countries have betrayed their values and compromised themselves in the face of profit, aligning themselves with the CCP’s practices.

Western countries hope they can help the CCP make a peaceful transformation, but while China has indeed undergone a degree of superficial modernization and westernization, the Party never changed its underlying nature. Over the past few decades, the practical result of engagement has seen the CCP successfully and peacefully undermine the moral obligations of the United States and corrupt the public will.

The CCP is the main arm of communism and thus the greatest threat worldwide. The communist specter’s aim in strengthening the global power of the CCP is to spread its poison to all corners of the earth and ultimately to have people betray tradition and the Divine. Even if the Party’s schemes for world domination are not directly successful, it will still have achieved the underlying purpose: to part people from their moral values. It does this by tempting people with economic interests, manipulating them with financial traps, infiltrating their political systems, intimidating them with military force, and confusing them with its propaganda.

Faced with such great danger, we must carefully examine the CCP regime’s ambition, strategy, tactics, and goals.

1. The Chinese Communist Party’s Ambition to Replace the US and Dominate the World

a. The CCP Has Always Aimed for World Domination

The CCP is not satisfied with being a regional power. It wants to control the world. This is determined by the Party’s inbuilt characteristic of tyranny. By its very nature, the Communist Party opposes heaven, earth, and tradition; it resorts to violence to smash the “old world” and aims to destroy all states, nations, and classes with the feigned goal of “liberating all humanity.” Its unchanging mission is one of constant expansion until the world is united under communist ideology. Its doctrines and practice are by definition globalist.

But because traditional culture was once quite powerful, communism has at times had to adopt a gradual and roundabout approach. In the Soviet Union, Stalin claimed the need for “socialism in one country”; more recently, the CCP has adopted “socialism with Chinese characteristics.”

Unlike the political parties that share power or hold power by rotation in Western democracies, the CCP has uncontested authority. It sets its strategic goals with a scope of decades or centuries. A few years after the Party established itself in 1949, it rolled out the slogan “surpass Britain and catch up to America,” which prefaced the Great Leap Forward. Later, owing to unfavorable domestic and international situations, the CCP assumed a low profile for decades.

After the Tiananmen Square massacre, the international community boycotted the Chinese regime. In response, the Party evaluated the situation and concluded that it was still unable to compete directly with the United States. Therefore, it took the path of hiding its strengths and biding its time, rather than attempting to take the lead on the international stage. This was not because the CCP had changed its goals, but because it adopts different strategies, based on the circumstances of the time, in its struggle to ultimately establish world hegemony.

It can be said that the communist specter used the ancient Chinese strategic feint of “openly repairing the plank roads while secretly advancing via the hidden route of Chencang.” The first communist superpower was the Soviet Union, but its ultimate role ended up being to aid the rise and maturation of the Chinese communist regime.

b. World Domination Requires Defeating the United States

Since World War I, the United States has been the most powerful country on earth, serving to maintain international order. Any country that wants to overturn this order must bring down the United States, so in terms of the CCP’s overall strategic considerations, America is the Party’s main enemy. This has been the case for decades, and the CCP has never stopped preparing for an all-out offensive against the United States.

In the book The Hundred-Year Marathon: China’s Secret Strategy to Replace America as the Global Superpower, Michael Pillsbury wrote that China has a long-term strategy to subvert the U.S.-led world economic and political order and to replace it with communism by 2049, the one-hundredth anniversary of the Communist Party’s rise to power in China. Pillsbury notes that in the TV series Silent Contest, produced by the National Defense University of China, the ambition to compete with the United States is laid out clearly: The CCP’s process of realizing its “great cause” of dominating the world “will inevitably run into constant wear-and-tear and struggle with the U.S. hegemonic system,” and “it is a centennial contest, not to be shifted by the human will.” [2]

The CCP’s global strategy is centered on countering the United States. Arthur Waldron, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania and an expert on China, stated at a 2004 Senate hearing that the People’s Liberation Army is the only army in the world that is dedicated for anti-U.S. operations. [3] In fact, apart from the PLA, most of the CCP’s diplomatic relations and international activities have the United States as their direct or indirect target.

c. The CCP Has a Multi-Pronged Strategy to Subvert and Contain the United States

The CCP has taken a comprehensive approach toward succeeding in its attempt to dominate the world. In ideology, it competes with the United States and other countries where there is freedom and democracy. It uses forced technology transfers and intellectual-property theft to close the tech gap and boost its economic confidence. Militarily, it engages in a silent rivalry with the United States by means of asymmetrical and “unrestricted warfare” in places like the South China Sea. It backs North Korea, Iran, and other rogue regimes to impede the United States and NATO.

In diplomacy, the CCP regime has promoted its “great peripheral strategy” and the “One Belt, One Road” plan. It has very quickly expanded its international influence with neighboring countries, as well as countries in Europe, Africa, Oceania, and Latin America, in an attempt to build an international coalition, develop a Chinese-led sphere, and isolate the United States.

The CCP has multiple methods to accomplish these goals. It established the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in 1996, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in 2015, and the “16+1” cooperation with Central and Eastern European countries in 2012. It cooperates keenly as part of the five BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) and vigorously promotes internationalization of its currency. It seeks to control the formulation of industrial standards (such as those used for the proposed 5G cellular networks) and to dominate public discourse.

The CCP regime has taken advantage of the democracy and freedom of the press that exist in the United States and other Western countries to carry out united front operations, spread propaganda, and engage in espionage. This is its attempt to manipulate the United States as much as possible and impose bloodless change from within.

Using these tactics, CCP agents bribe U.S. government officials, congressmen, diplomats, and retired military officers. The Party uses economic interests to guide American capitalists to lobby for the Chinese communists and to influence U.S. policy on China. It forces high-tech companies to cooperate with the CCP’s internet censorship and Great Firewall, coerces and incentivizes many in overseas Chinese communities to serve as fifth columnists, and infiltrates Western think tanks and academic departments. It manipulates these institutions into exercising self-censorship on sensitive topics, effectively adopting the stand of the Communist Party. Chinese companies, which are controlled or influenced by the CCP, have been investing heavily in Hollywood.

While developing its influence in various countries to envelop and contain the United States on one hand, on the other, it establishes hidden strongholds on American soil so that it can undermine the United States from within. It has built an extensive network of agents and has fostered splits in U.S. society, posing a serious internal threat.

d. The CCP Incites Anti-U.S. Hatred to Prepare for War With America

The CCP’s ideology runs on hatred. The patriotism it promotes entails hating Japan, hating Taiwan, hating Tibetans, hating the ethnic minorities of Xinjiang, hating religious believers, hating dissidents, and most importantly, hating the United States. There is a saying among Chinese netizens: “For small problems, blame Japan, and for big ones, blame the United States.” This means that by inciting hatred against foreign foes, the Party helps smooth over public outrage during a crisis.

Before the Chinese communists seized power, they repeatedly praised the United States for its friendship with China and for the American democratic system. However, after the CCP set up its regime, it immediately took advantage of the suffering China had experienced in modern history, as well as the eagerness of the people to have a strong nation. The CCP painted itself as China’s savior by stoking hatred against America and other foreign countries.

In fact, the CCP does not care about the lives and deaths of the Chinese people, nor does it care about China’s territorial integrity or the sustainable long-term development of the Chinese nation. It is impossible to describe the evilness of how the CCP has persecuted the Chinese people, betrayed China’s sovereignty, destroyed Chinese morality and traditional culture, and squandered China’s future.

By inciting hatred of foreign countries, the CCP’s aims are, first, to paint itself as a savior so as to legitimize its brutal rule; second, to use nationalist sentiment to divert public attention in times of crisis; third, to build support for the Party’s expansionist ambitions and base schemes as being a means of “rectifying” the humiliations of modern times; and fourth, to use hatred to create the psychological preparedness needed for future wars and to desensitize the public to acts of barbarity.

The CCP has indoctrinated the younger generation with hatred of the United States in order to use them as its tools in the effort to supersede America and dominate the world. When the time comes, the CCP intends to use China’s youth to infiltrate the United States and its allied democratic states in various fashions, participate in all-out armed conflict, wage unrestricted warfare, and, should the need arise, sacrifice themselves in a nuclear holocaust.

The jubilant reactions of the Chinese public following the terrorist attacks of 9/11 indicated that the CCP was making good progress with its propaganda. On major Chinese political and military forums, one commonly sees sentiments like “China and the United States must have a war” — another indication of the CCP’s success in educating people to hate the United States. This is a long-term, gradual mobilization for war, deliberately planned and systematically carried out by the CCP.

The CCP’s hate propaganda is not limited to China’s borders. Internationally, it explicitly or overtly supports rogue regimes and terrorist organizations to fight the United States, providing them with financial assistance, weapons and equipment, theoretical contributions, tactical training, and public support. The CCP has become the head of an axis of anti-American states, and it arrogantly steers the global forces of anti-Americanism.

e. The CCP No Longer Conceals Its Intentions in the Sino–U.S. Relationship

In 2008, while the United States was struggling with an economic crisis, China hosted in Beijing the most expensive Olympic Games in history. Dressed in a costume of prosperity, the regime pushed itself onto the international stage. At the time, as a result of globalization, the U.S. manufacturing industry was in decline. In the face of such economic difficulties, the United States asked China for help. The CCP’s media began to tout, “America is surviving by borrowing money from us Chinese,” “America is going downhill; China is in position to replace it,” and so on. Virtually all of the Party-controlled media in China ran such headlines, and the ideas even became part of popular opinion among Western media and scholars.

Since 2008, America had shown signs of decline in areas such as economic standing, military strength, and political stability. On the economic front, the United States was pushing universal health care, expanding social benefits, placing climate issues at the center of policy, strengthening environmental monitoring, and placing restrictions on traditional manufacturing business. Still, the green energy industry was defeated by made-in-China products, and U.S. manufacturing continued to be hollowed out. There was no way to counter and guard against China’s attacks in trade and intellectual-property theft.

In the face of these trends, many simply accepted as fact the narrative that China was in ascendance and America was in decline. U.S. military spending decreased, and the United States adopted a weak diplomatic stance. On the U.S. political front, socialist ideology was on the rise, social divisions were widening, democratic politics became a showground for partisan squabbling, and government functions were often handicapped as a result. The CCP compared this chaos unfavorably with the focused totalitarianism of its own system, depicting America’s democracy as a laughingstock.

In 2010, China surpassed Japan to become the world’s second-largest economy in the world. In 2014, according to the World Bank’s statistics, if calculated based on purchasing power parity, China’s GDP might have surpassed that of the United States. [4] Seeing that the balance of power between China and the United States appeared to be shifting, and believing that America’s decline was irreversible, the CCP ended its old strategy of hiding its strength and biding its time. Instead, the Party openly and directly took aim at the international order led by the United States. The official stance of the CCP, the media, and experts gradually started to speak unabashedly of an expansionist “China dream.”

In 2012, during its 18th National Congress, the CCP introduced the notion of building a “community of shared future for mankind.” In 2017, the CCP held its Grand Gathering of World Political Parties in order to falsely evoke the ancient imagery of the myriad kingdoms coming to pay their respects at the Chinese imperial court. The CCP went public with its desire to export the communist “China model” to the rest of the world.

In the name of spreading what the CCP calls the “China model,” the “Chinese plan,” or “Chinese wisdom,” the Party’s ambition is to lead the world and establish a new world order in accordance with the Party’s rules. The CCP has been preparing for this in all respects for decades. If this new world order were indeed established, it would present a formidable new axis of evil, an adversary even more threatening to the free world than the Axis alliance during World War II.

2. Communist China’s Strategies for World Domination

a. ‘One Belt, One Road’ Initiative Is Territorial Expansion Under the Guise of Globalization

One Belt, One Road’ Takes Center Stage

In 2013, the CCP officially introduced the plan for its Silk Road Economic Belt and Twenty-First-Century Maritime Silk Road, also known as “One Belt, One Road,” or OBOR. The plan is for the Chinese regime to invest trillions of dollars to build critical infrastructure, such as bridges, railroads, ports, and energy facilities, in dozens of countries. It is the biggest planned investment project in history.

“One Belt” refers to the Silk Road Economic Belt, which consists of three land-based components: from China through Central Asia and Russia to Europe and the Baltic Sea; from northwestern China through Central Asia and West Asia to the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean; and from southwestern China through the Indochina Peninsula to the Indian Ocean.

“One Road” refers to the Twenty-First-Century Maritime Silk Road, which is a two-pronged effort: The first route goes from the ports in China to the South China Sea, through the Strait of Malacca and on to Europe via the Indian Ocean; the second heads to the southern Pacific Ocean.

The land-based “One Belt” consists of six economic corridors: the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor, the New Eurasian Land Bridge, the China-Central and West Asia Economic Corridor, the China-Indochina Peninsula Economic Corridor, the China Pakistan-Economic Corridor, and the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Economic Corridor.

The New Eurasian Land Bridge will be based on rail links between China and Europe, called China Railway Express. Transportation from China to Europe takes just over ten days by rail, compared to over thirty days by sea. The China Railway Express began operations in 2011 and has been an important component of OBOR.

The China Pakistan-Economic Corridor is a joint plan by the two governments. It includes a highway connecting Kashgar in China’s Xinjiang Province with Gwadar Port in Pakistan, on the Indian Ocean. China gained the right to operate the port, Pakistan’s gateway to the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, in 2013. The port occupies a critical strategic location, connecting the Strait of Hormuz, through which 40 percent of the world’s crude oil passes, to the Arabian Sea.

The general framework of the sea-based “One Road” is to build a number of strategic ports and to gain control over global sea transportation. In financially robust countries, Chinese companies enter into equity participation or joint ventures. With financially weaker countries, China invests large amounts of money locally and attempts to obtain the rights to operate the ports.

In 2013 alone, Chinese enterprises received the rights to operate at least seventeen ports or terminals. China Merchants Port Holdings Company Limited bought 49 percent equity from Terminal Link SAS in France. With this purchase, it obtained the operating rights to fifteen terminals in eight countries on four continents. [5]

These ports and terminals include the ports of Antwerp and Zeebrugge in Belgium; the Suez Canal Terminal in Egypt; Kumport in Turkey; the Port of Piraeus in Greece; Pasir Panjang Port in Singapore; Euromax Terminal Rotterdam, which is called “the gate of Europe,” in the Netherlands; the second-phase terminal at Khalifa Port in the United Arab Emirates; the Port of Vado in Italy; Kuantan Port in Malaysia; the Port of Djibouti in eastern Africa; and the Panama Canal.

In addition to investment, the Communist Party also uses the debt traps created by OBOR to obtain control of strategic locations. Sri Lanka could not pay its debt to Chinese companies, so in 2017, it signed a ninety-nine-year lease with a Chinese company for use of the Hambantota Port.

The CCP launched its Digital Silk Road in 2018 with the intention of reshaping the future development of internet infrastructure. The Digital Silk Road is considered an advanced stage in the OBOR project and is its newest development. It mainly includes building fiber optic infrastructure, digital information services, international telecommunications, and e-commerce.

Many countries involved in OBOR do not have a complete credit system. The CCP aims to introduce its systems of e-commerce and electronic payment services, such as Alipay, to these countries, while totally shutting out Western competition. The Great Firewall, which filters internet traffic in China, is being exported to OBOR countries, as are the systems of mass surveillance already adopted by the CCP for use within China.

The extent of the CCP’s strategic reach can be seen from its investment in global infrastructure. According to a November 2018 report by The New York Times, the CCP has constructed or is constructing more than forty pipelines and other oil and gas infrastructure; more than two hundred bridges, roads and railways; almost two hundred power plants for nuclear power, natural gas, coal, and renewables; and a series of major dams. It has invested in 112 countries, most of which belong to the OBOR initiative. The CCP has spread its tendrils around the globe. [6]

As OBOR took shape, the CCP’s efforts to supplant the United States on the world stage grew. It aggressively promoted the yuan as an international currency, as well as its own credit system. Chinese-made telecommunications networks (including 5G) are being pushed as the future in many countries, as are Chinese-built high-speed rail lines. The aim is to eventually establish a set of standards controlled by the CCP and independent of the current Western standards.

One Belt, One Road’ Has a Global Reach

In the early stages of OBOR, the CCP focused on neighboring countries, reaching as far as Europe. Very quickly, the CCP expanded its reach to Africa, Latin America, and even the Arctic Ocean, covering the entire world. The Maritime Silk Road originally consisted of just two routes. A third route, the Polar Silk Road, was added to connect to Europe via the Arctic Ocean. Prior to OBOR, the CCP had already invested heavily in Africa and Latin America. These countries are now part of the major structure of OBOR, which has enabled the CCP to more rapidly expand its financial and military reach in Africa and Latin America.

The primary goal of OBOR is to export China’s excess capacity by building up basic infrastructure such as railways and highways in other countries. These countries are rich in resources and energy. By helping them build infrastructure, the CCP accomplishes two secondary goals. One is to open routes to ship domestic products to Europe at low cost; the other is to secure the strategic resources of countries that participate in OBOR. The CCP’s intention is to increase its own exports, not to help the countries along the Belt and Road to establish their own manufacturing industries — the CCP would not relinquish Chinese manufacturing.

The real ambition behind OBOR is to use economic means as a vanguard to establish control over the financial and political lifelines of other countries and turn them into the CCP’s colonies in its globalist strategy. Byproducts of participation in OBOR schemes include importation of all the pernicious aspects of communism: corruption, debt, and totalitarian repression. The project is a deceptive trap that will not bring lasting economic prosperity to its participants.

Many countries have become alarmed and are either stopping or re-evaluating the OBOR project. The CCP has conceded that it should be more transparent and make adjustments to the heavily criticized debt traps. Nevertheless, the CCP’s plans can’t be underestimated. While Western enterprises operate on profit-seeking principles and won’t tough it out in turbulent host countries for more than a few years, the CCP’s calculus extends into the next century. It can tolerate operations in turbulent international environments for the long term without regard for immediate losses.

What the CCP wants are pro-communist governments that will support it in the United Nations. The CCP wants to become the leader of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, to struggle with the free world, and to replace America as the world’s number one power. The CCP is willing to foot any human costs necessary to achieve this goal. For instance, the Party can force the Chinese people to pay for costs that privately owned Western enterprises could never handle. In this war to conquer the world, it is not about how powerful the CCP is on paper, but that the CCP has at its disposal the resources of hundreds of millions of Chinese people irrespective of their lives or their deaths. They are its sacrificial pawns.

Former White House Chief Strategist Steve Bannon offered a unique interpretation of the OBOR project. He credits the Chinese Belt and Road initiative as having successfully integrated the Mackinder-Mahan-Spykman theses of how to dominate the world.

Andrew Sheng, of the Asia Global Institute, summed up Bannon’s views:

Sir Halford Mackinder was an influential British geographer/historian who argued in 1904 that ‘Whoever rules the Heartland (central Asia) commands the World-Island (Eurasia); whoever rules the World-Island commands the World.’ His American contemporary, Alfred Mahan was a naval historian who shaped the U.S. strategy to dominate sea power, extending the British maritime empire logic of controlling the sea lanes, choke points and canals by policing global trade. In contrast, Nicholas John Spykman argued that the Rimland (the coastal lands encircling Asia) is more important tha[n] the Heartland, thus: ‘Who controls the Rimland rules EuroAsia; who rules EuroAsia controls the destinies of the world.’ [7]

Bannon’s assessments reflect the Western world’s growing vigilance against the CCP’s ambitions contained in the OBOR project.

In fact, the CCP’s ambition is not limited to the scope of OBOR. The initiative is not merely focused on obtaining the rights to land routes, sea lanes, and major ports. The CCP wants to take advantage of loopholes, wherever they may be around the world. Many countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America are newly independent states created by decolonization. These regions experienced a power vacuum, inviting the CCP to gain footholds. The newly independent countries that once comprised the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites had weak sovereign control and were also easy pickings for the CCP regime. Other turbulent countries, which Western investors tend to stay away from, naturally fell into the CCP’s trap. Small countries, island countries, and underdeveloped countries occupying strategic locations are all in the CCP’s crosshairs.

Even some states once firmly in the Western democratic camp have drifted into the CCP’s orbit after suffering from weak economies and high debt. Geopolitically, the CCP is gradually surrounding the United States by controlling the economy of other countries. The aim is to have American influence marginalized and eventually removed from those countries, by which time the CCP will have established a separate world order centered on communist tyranny. This is not a new approach. It has its roots in the old CCP strategy of occupying the countryside to surround the cities, which led it to victory in the Chinese Civil War.

b. The CCP’s Great-Periphery Strategy Aims to Exclude the US From the Asia-Pacific Region

What is the CCP’s so-called Great Periphery Diplomacy? Party think tanks define it like this: “China neighbors fourteen countries along a lengthy land border, and looks across the sea at six other neighboring countries. Beyond that, to the east is the Asia-Pacific region, and to the west is Eurasia. That is, the radial extent of China’s extended neighborhood covers two-thirds of international politics, economy, and security. Thus, the framework of periphery diplomacy is more than mere regional strategy. … It is a true grand strategy.” [8]

Australia Is the Weak Link of the Western World

In June 2017, Fairfax Media Limited and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation released the results of their five-month investigation, the documentary Power and Influence: The Hard Edge of China’s Soft Power. The documentary raised concerns around the world by describing the CCP’s widespread infiltration and control over Australian society. [9] Six months later, Sam Dastyari, a member of the Australian Labor Party, announced his resignation from the Senate. Dastyari’s resignation followed accusations that he had accepted money from CCP-linked Chinese merchants for making statements in support of Beijing regarding South China Sea territorial disputes. His statements on this critical issue clashed with the views of his own party. [10]

In September 2016, Australia’s SBS News published a news report revealing political donations by a Chinese businessman intended to influence Australia-China trade policies. [11] Furthermore, in recent years, Chinese state-run media outlets have signed contracts with Australian media, allowing them to broadcast content provided by Chinese media to Australian audiences. [12]

In fact, as early as 2015, Australia allowed a Chinese company with close ties to the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to secure a ninety-nine-year lease over the Port of Darwin. The seaport occupies an important military location for guarding against attack from the north. Richard Armitage, a former U.S. deputy secretary of state, said he was stunned by the deal, and that the United States was concerned about the development. [13]

In 2017, a book called Silent Invasion: China’s Influence in Australia, by author Clive Hamilton was rejected three times by Australian publishers due to fear of Chinese repercussions. Finally, following much consideration, the third publisher agreed to publish it. The censorship elicited widespread concern among Australians about China’s influence in their country. [14]

Many more wonder why China has directed so much effort to Australia. What is the military strategic value of the CCP infiltrating Australia and exerting control there?

In December 2017, the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) stated in its report Sharp Power: Rising Authoritarian Influence that the Chinese Communist Party is influencing and changing Australian politics and academia by means of bribery and infiltration for the main purpose of weakening the U.S.-Australia alliance. [15]

In its 2017 Foreign Policy White Paper, the Australian government said: “The United States has been the dominant power in our region throughout Australia’s post-Second World War history. Today, China is challenging America’s position.” [16] Dr. Malcolm Davis, senior analyst at the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, said Beijing was trying to gain a strategic advantage in the Australian region to achieve its final goal of ending Australia’s alliance with the United States. [17]

Australia is the CCP regime’s testing ground for soft-power operations in its strategy of periphery diplomacy. [18] The CCP’s infiltration of Australia dates back to 2005, when Zhou Wenzhong, then deputy head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, arrived in Canberra and informed senior officials at the Chinese Embassy of the CCP’s new diplomatic approach. He said that the first goal of including Australia in China’s greater periphery was to ensure that Australia would serve as a trustworthy and stable supply base for China’s economic growth in the next twenty years. The long-term goal is to pry apart the U.S.–Australia alliance. The mission of those present at the meeting was to understand how the CCP could broadly exert influence over Australia in the spheres of economics, politics, and culture. [19]

The CCP regime uses its economic strength to force Australia to make concessions on a series of military issues and human rights affairs. The standard approach adopted by the CCP to coerce others into cooperation is to cultivate personal relationships via economic interests and simultaneously create the implicit threat of blackmail. [20]

After years of investigation, Clive Hamilton found that “Australia’s major institutions — from our schools, colleges and professional associations to our media; from professions of mining, farming and tourism to military assets of ports and electrical networks; from our local parliaments and state governments to our Canberra parties — are being infiltrated and transformed by a complicated control system under the supervision of CCP.” [21]

Since the 2008 economic crisis, in practice, Australia has proven willing to serve as the CCP’s supply base, due to the common belief that the CCP rescued Australia from the recession. Hamilton says that the reason the CCP’s infiltration and influence can be so effective in Australia is that Australians “have allowed it to happen right under our noses, because we are blinded by the belief that only China can guarantee our economic prosperity, and because we dare not stand up against Beijing’s bullying.” [22]

Despite awareness of the CCP’s infiltration and influence on Western society, and particularly the CCP’s infiltration and control of overseas Chinese communities, most well-meaning Westerners naively imagined initially that the main purpose of the Party’s strategies was “negative” — that is, to silence the voices of critics and those with different political opinions. However, Hamilton says that behind the “negative” operations are the CCP’s “positive” ambitions: to use ethnic Chinese immigrants to change the frame of Australian society, and to have Westerners sympathize with the CCP so as to allow Beijing to build up influence. In this way, Australia would be transformed into the CCP’s helper in the regime’s goal of becoming an Asian, then global superpower. [23]

Similarly, the CCP is extending its infiltration and control from Australia to New Zealand. Anne-Marie Brady, an expert in Chinese politics at the University of Canterbury, released a report titled Magic Weapons, which takes New Zealand as an example to illustrate how the CCP extends its infiltration and political influence overseas. The report reveals that several Chinese-born members of New Zealand’s Parliament have close links with the CCP and that many politicians have been bribed by massive political donations from rich Chinese merchants and CCP united-front organizations such as Chinese trade associations in New Zealand. [24] Shortly after her report was published, Dr. Brady’s office was broken into. Before the break-in, she also received an anonymous letter threatening her with the words “You are the next one.” [25]

China is actively roping in New Zealand’s local politicians. For example, members of New Zealand political parties are lavished with cordial treatment on trips to China. Retired politicians are offered high-paying positions in Chinese enterprises, as well as other benefits to have them follow the Party’s directives. [26]

The CCP Targets Pacific Island Nations for Their Strategic Value

Despite their size, Pacific island nations have the critical strategic value of being able to serve as maritime bases. Their total land area is just 53,000 square kilometers (20,463 square miles) compared with their exclusive economic zones (EEZ) over parts of the ocean, which total 19,000,000 square kilometers (7,335,941 square miles) — an area over six times the size of China’s EEZs. Developing greater ties with Pacific island nations is a publicly acknowledged component of the CCP’s military strategy.

Currently, spheres of influence in the Pacific area are divided between the United States, Japan, New Zealand, Australia, and France. To develop its maritime capabilities in the Pacific Ocean, the CCP must first build good relations with the island nations, then slowly push out the U.S. presence. [27]

John Henderson, a New Zealand professor, and Benjamin Reilly, a professor in Australia, said that the CCP’s long-term goal in the South Pacific area is to take the place of America as the superpower there. [28] The CCP has invested immense amounts of money in Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia to assist these island nations in constructing infrastructure. It has promoted local tourism and made e-business platforms available. It is outstripping American activity in the area. Ben Bohane, an Australian author, warned that America is losing influence over the Pacific Ocean to China. [29]

Following the CCP’s large-scale financial assistance and investment, the arrogant behavior of its officials reflects the real mentality of the CCP when it is strong and thinks highly of its abilities. It tries to treat the people of other nations the way it treats the Chinese people under its totalitarian control. The CCP’s goal is to demand obedience from countries of inferior strength. Naturally, the CCP cannot be expected to respect international regulations and protocol.

At the APEC summit held in late 2018 in Papua New Guinea, the rude and uncivilized behavior of Chinese officials shocked the locals and those in attendance. Chinese officials bluntly stopped journalists (including those of Papua New Guinea) from interviewing attendees at a forum held between Chinese leader Xi Jinping and leaders of the Pacific island nations. Instead, they demanded that all journalists refer to the Xinhua news release.

To prevent statements condemning the CCP regime’s unfair trade behavior from being written into a joint communique, Chinese officials demanded to meet the Papua New Guinea foreign minister. Since a private meeting with Chinese officials would affect his impartial stance, he turned down the request.

Additionally, Chinese officials resorted to yelling and shouting when they accused other countries of plotting a scheme against China. One high-ranking U.S. official described the CCP officials’ behavior at APEC as “tantrum diplomacy.” [30]

Debt Traps Enable the CCP to Seize Control Over Central Asia’s Resources

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the CCP has taken great efforts to develop and cement its relationship with Central Asian countries, like Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The goal of the CCP’s strategy in Central Asia can be viewed from several angles: For one, Central Asia is an unavoidable land route in China’s westward expansion. Further, when China constructs infrastructure to transport goods in and out of China, it can also expand its commercial interests in Central Asia. Secondly, China aims to seize the natural resources, including coal, oil, gas, and precious metals, that are abundant in these countries. Additionally, by controlling Central Asian countries that are geographically and culturally close to Xinjiang, China can tighten its control over ethnic minorities in Xinjiang.

Though the CCP has not announced its desire to dominate Central Asia, it has effectively taken up the most influential role in this region. The International Crisis Group, a Brussels-based think tank, released a report in 2013 saying that China has been rapidly growing into an economically dominant power in this region by taking advantage of social unrest in Central Asia. Beijing sees Central Asia as a supply base for raw materials and resources and as a market for its low-priced, low-quality products. Meanwhile, the CCP has also poured millions of U.S. dollars into investment and aid in Central Asia in the name of maintaining stability in Xinjiang. [31]

A huge network of highways, railways, airways, communication, and oil pipelines has closely connected China with Central Asia. The China Road and Bridge Corporation and its contractors have been responsible for the construction of highways, railways, and electricity transmission lines in Central Asia. They pave roads on some of the most dangerous and complex terrain and construct new roads to transport China’s goods to Europe and the Middle East, as well as to ports in Pakistan and Iran. In the two decades between 1992 and 2012, of diplomatic relations between China and the five Central Asian countries, the total volume of trade between China and Central Asia grew one-hundredfold. [32]

In Central Asia, the CCP has promoted investments in large state-run, credit-financed infrastructure projects. Some scholars have realized that such investments could form the basis of a new international order in which China would play a dominant role. Seen from this perspective, Central Asia is another testing ground, like Australia, for the CCP’s conceptual revolution in diplomatic strategy. [33]

Beijing tends to support the corrupt authoritarian leaders of the Central Asian countries, and its opaque investment projects are considered beneficial primarily for the local social elites. The International Crisis Group’s report noted that each of the Central Asian governments is weak, corrupt, and fraught with social and economic unrest. [34] The large infrastructure projects promoted by Beijing are not only linked to massive loans, but also involve official approvals and permits, which are based on vested interests. This gives rise to and worsens the corruption in these regimes.

In Uzbekistan, Islam Karimov, the former first secretary of the Communist Party of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR, served as the country’s president from the time of independence in 1991 to his death in 2016. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan was under Karimov’s authoritarian rule for another quarter century. In 2005, government forces clashed with protesters in the eastern city of Andijan, resulting in hundreds of deaths. The CCP placed itself as an ally of Karimov, rendering firm support, as usual, to Uzbekistan and other countries in the region in their efforts to safeguard the status quo. [35]

The fragile economic structures of Central Asian countries, in combination with massive infrastructure loans from China, leave these countries especially prone to falling into China’s debt trap. Turkmenistan is suffering from a severe economic crisis, with an annual inflation rate of over 300 percent, unemployment estimated at over 50 percent, severe food shortages, and rampant corruption. Now China is the only customer of Turkmen gas, [36] and also the largest creditor of its foreign debt, which stands at US$9 billion (estimated at 30 percent of GDP in 2018). [37] It’s possible that Turkmenistan had no choice but to give its natural gas fields to China to pay off its debt. [38] This country has put its economic arteries in Beijing’s hands.

Tajikistan borrowed more than US$300 million from China to build a power plant. Unable to pay its debt, the country transferred ownership of a gold mine to China in order to pay off the liabilities. [39]

The Kyrgyz economy is also in danger, as large-scale infrastructure projects carried out by the CCP there also caused it to fall into the debt trap. The country is likely to give part of its natural resources to pay debt. Kyrgyzstan also cooperated with Chinese communications companies Huawei and ZTE to build digital communication tools in order to tighten governmental control over people, while also leaving China a backdoor to extend its surveillance into these countries. [40]

Beijing took advantage of the power vacuum in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union to enter the Kazakh energy sector. The Kazakh economy depends on its crude oil production, and oil revenue, in U.S. dollars, is used to buy cheap Chinese products. Apart from oil drilling, this nation’s industrial foundation is fragile. With the flow of cheap Chinese products into its market, the Kazakh manufacturing industry collapsed. [41]

Another motive for the CCP’s expansion in Central Asia is to crack down on Uyghur dissidents living in Central Asia. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Charter signed by the China-led SCO allows suspects to be extradited to member countries. A member country can even send their own officials to another member country to conduct an investigation. In this way, the CCP extends its suppression of Uyghurs abroad and arrests Uyghur dissidents who have taken refuge in other countries. [42]

The CCP Uses Pivotal States to Secure Strategic Resources

Implementation of the Communist Party’s peripheral strategy involved first creating pivotal states, which are then used as a base for achieving strategic goals in the entire region. According to the Party’s think tanks, pivotal states are countries that have considerable regional power that Beijing has the capability and resources to guide; they have no direct conflicts with the CCP in terms of strategic interests, and don’t share close interests with the United States. [43] In addition to the aforementioned Australia, Kazakhstan, and others, examples of pivotal countries for the Chinese regime include Iran in the Middle East and Myanmar.

In the Middle East, Iran receives the greatest Chinese investment. Iran is an important oil producer in the region and has been in ideological opposition to the West since the late 1970s, making it a natural economic and military partner for the CCP. Beijing has maintained close economic and military relations with Iran since the 1980s.

In 1991, the International Atomic Energy Agency discovered that the CCP had exported uranium to Iran and that China and Iran had signed a secret nuclear agreement in 1990. [44] In 2002, when Iran’s uranium enrichment project was revealed, Western oil companies withdrew from the country, giving the CCP an opportunity to capitalize on the situation and cultivate closer relations with Iran. [45]

Bilateral trade volume between the CCP and Iran grew exponentially between 1992 and 2011, increasing by more than one hundred times in seventeen years, although there was significant slowdown due to pressure caused by international sanctions on the Iranian regime. [46] Due to the CCP’s assistance, Iran was able to weather the international isolation imposed on it and develop a broad arsenal of short- to medium-range ballistic missiles, as well as anti-ship cruise missiles. The Chinese also provided it with sea mines and fast attack craft, and helped Iran establish a covert chemical weapons project. [47]

Another pivotal state favored by the CCP regime is Myanmar, its neighboring country in South Asia. Myanmar has a long coastline, which provides strategic access to the Indian Ocean. The CCP regards the opening of a China-Myanmar channel as a strategic step to minimizing reliance on the Strait of Malacca. [48] The Burmese military government’s poor human rights record has caused it to be isolated by the international community. The 1988 democracy movement in Myanmar was ultimately crushed with military force. The following year, in Beijing, PLA tanks opened fire on pro-democracy demonstrators in Tiananmen Square.

The two authoritarian governments, both condemned by the international community, found a degree of solace in their diplomatic company and have since enjoyed close relations. In October 1989, Myanmar’s Than Shwe visited China, and the two sides signed a US$1.4 billion arms deal. [49] In the 1990s, there were again many arms deals between the two sides. Equipment the CCP has sold to Myanmar include fighter planes, patrol ships, tanks and armored personnel carriers, anti-aircraft guns, and rockets. [50] The CCP’s military, political, and economic support thus became the Burmese military junta’s lifeline in its struggle for continued survival. [51]

In 2013, the Chinese invested US$5 billion into the China-Myanmar crude oil and gas pipeline, said to be China’s fourth-largest strategic oil-and-gas import conduit. Although it met with strong popular opposition, in 2017, it went into operation with the backing of the CCP. [52] Similar investments include the Myitsone Dam (currently placed on hold due to local opposition) and the Letpadaung Copper Mine. In 2017, bilateral trade between China and Myanmar totaled $US13.54 billion. The CCP is currently planning to create a China-Myanmar economic corridor with 70 percent of the share held by the Chinese side. This includes a deep-water port for trade access to the Indian Ocean, [53] and the Kyaukpyu Special Economic Zone industrial park. [54]

c. ‘Divide and Conquer’ in Europe Serves to Create a Split With the United States

In the Cold War, Europe was at the center of the confrontation between the free world and the communist camp. The United States and Western European nations maintained a close alliance via the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. After the Cold War, Europe began to decline in terms of economic and political importance.

In order to drive a wedge between Europe and the United States, the CCP adopted a strategy of dividing and conquering the European countries, by adapting to local conditions to gradually penetrate and develop influence in Europe. In recent years, the differences between Europe and the United States on many major issues have become increasingly apparent. The CCP has had a hand in this.

After the 2008 financial crisis, the CCP exploited the fact that weaker European economies were in urgent need of foreign investment. The CCP injected large sums of money into these countries in exchange for compromises on issues such as international rule of law and human rights. The CCP used this method to create and expand the cracks between European countries, then reaped the benefits. Countries targeted by the CCP included Greece, Spain, Portugal, and Hungary.

After the sovereign debt crisis in Greece, the CCP invested heavily there, exchanging money for political influence, and using Greece as an opening for building more influence in Europe. Within a few years, the CCP obtained a thirty-five-year concession for the second and third container terminals of Piraeus Port, Greece’s largest port, and took over the main transshipment hub at the port.

In May 2017, China and Greece signed a three-year action plan covering railways, ports, airport network construction, power-energy networks, and power-plant investments. [55] The CCP’s investment has already seen political returns. Since 2016, Greece, a member of the European Union, has repeatedly opposed EU proposals that would criticize the Chinese regime’s policies and human rights record. Many potential EU statements to this effect did not materialize. In August 2017, a commentary published by The New York Times said, “Greece has embraced the advances of China, its most ardent and geopolitically ambitious suitor.” [56]

In 2012, the CCP regime launched a cooperation framework with sixteen countries in Central and Eastern Europe called “16+1.” Hungary was the first country to join the initiative and the first European country to sign an OBOR agreement with China. In 2017, bilateral trade volume between China and Hungary exceeded US$10 billion. Like Greece, Hungary has repeatedly opposed EU criticism of the CCP’s human rights abuses. [57] The president of the Czech Republic hired a wealthy Chinese businessman to be his personal adviser and has kept his distance from the Dalai Lama. [58]

Among the sixteen countries included in the framework, eleven are EU countries, and five are non-EU countries. The CCP has proposed a new model of regional cooperation, with the intent—to divide the European Union—being obvious. Additionally, among the sixteen countries, many are former socialist countries. These countries all have a history of communist rule and have preserved many ideological and organizational traces of those regimes. To some extent, conforming to the CCP’s demands comes naturally to them.

There are many small countries in Europe, and it is difficult for any one country to compete with the CCP. The Party has used this to handle each government individually, intimidating them into staying silent on China’s human rights abuses and pernicious foreign policy.

The most typical example is Norway. In 2010, the Norwegian Nobel Prize Committee awarded the Peace Prize to an incarcerated Chinese dissident. The CCP quickly took revenge by setting up various obstacles to prevent Norway from exporting salmon to China, as well as causing other difficulties. Six years later, relations between the two countries were “normalized,” but Norway has remained silent on human rights issues in China. [59]

The traditional Western European powers have also felt the growing influence of the CCP. China’s direct investment in Germany has grown substantially since 2010. In 2016 and 2017, China was Germany’s largest trading partner. In 2016, fifty-six German companies were acquired by mainland Chinese and Hong Kong investors, with investment reaching a high of 11 billion euros. These mergers and acquisitions allowed Chinese companies to quickly enter the market and acquire advanced Western technology, brands, and other assets. [60] The U.S. think tank Hoover Institution, in a 2018 report, labeled this the CCP’s “weaponization” investment. [61]

The industrial city of Duisburg in western Germany has become the European transit point for OBOR. Every week, thirty trains filled with Chinese goods come to the city, where they are then transported separately to other countries. The mayor of Duisburg has said that Duisburg is Germany’s “China City.” [62]

In dealing with France, the CCP has long used a strategy of “transaction diplomacy.” For example, when then-CCP dictator Jiang Zemin visited France in 1999, he purchased nearly thirty Airbus aircraft, worth a combined 15 billion francs. This massive sale led the French government to support China’s admission to the WTO. Following the Tiananmen Square massacre, France became the first Western country to establish a comprehensive strategic partnership with China. The French president at the time was the first in the West to oppose criticism of China at the annual conference of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights in Geneva, the first to advocate strongly for the lifting of the EU arms embargo on China, and the first head of a Western government to praise the CCP. [63] In addition, the CCP established large-scale Chinese Culture Weeks in France at an early stage of its expansionary activity as a means of promoting communist ideology under the guise of cultural exchange. [64]

The United Kingdom, traditionally a powerful European country and an important ally of the United States, is also one of the CCP’s most prized targets. On September 15, 2016, the British government officially approved the start of the Hinkley Point C unit nuclear power project, a joint venture between China and a French consortium. Hinkley Point C nuclear power station is a nuclear power plant in Somerset, southwest England, with an installed capacity of 3,200 megawatts.

The project was severely criticized by experts, including engineers, physicists, environmentalists, China experts, and business analysts, who especially referred to the huge hidden dangers to British national security. Nick Timothy, the ex-chief of staff to Prime Minister Theresa May, pointed out that security experts — reportedly inside as well as outside government — “are worried that Chinese people can use their role to build weaknesses in the computer system, which will enable them to shut down British energy production at will.” [65] The Guardian calls this “the ‘dreadful deal’ behind the world’s most expensive power plant.” [66]

As in other parts of the world, the methods the Chinese regime uses to expand its influence in Europe are pervasive and legion. They include acquiring European high-tech companies, controlling the shares of important ports, bribing retired politicians to praise the CCP’s platform, coaxing sinologists to sing the praises of the CCP, penetrating universities, think tanks, and research institutes, and so on. [67] The English-language edition of the CCP-controlled China Daily has a monthly page insert in the long-established British newspaper The Daily Telegraph; the inserts carry articles glorifying the Chinese regime. Beijing pays The Daily Telegraph up to 750,000 pounds a year for the inserts. [68]

The CCP’s activities in Europe have caused great misgivings among researchers. The European Institute of Public Policy, a leading think tank in Europe, published a research report in 2018 exposing the CCP’s infiltration activities in Europe:

China commands a comprehensive and flexible influencing toolset, ranging from the overt to the covert, primarily deployed across three arenas: political and economic elites, media and public opinion, and civil society and academia. In expanding its political influence, China takes advantage of the one-sided openness of Europe. Europe’s gates are wide open whereas China seeks to tightly restrict access of foreign ideas, actors and capital.

The effects of this asymmetric political relationship are beginning to show within Europe. European states increasingly tend to adjust their policies in fits of ‘preemptive obedience’ to curry favor with the Chinese side. Political elites within the European Union (EU) and in the European neighborhood have started to embrace Chinese rhetoric and interests, including where they contradict national and/or European interests. EU unity has suffered from Chinese divide and rule tactics, especially where the protection and projection of liberal values and human rights are concerned. Beijing also benefits from the ‘services’ of willing enablers among European political and professional classes who are happy to promote Chinese values and interests. Rather than only China trying to actively build up political capital, there is also much influence courting on the part of those political elites in EU member states who seek to attract Chinese money or to attain greater recognition on the global plane. [69]

In addition to political, economic, and cultural infiltration in Europe, the CCP has also engaged in various forms of espionage. On October 22, 2018, the French Le Figaro carried the headline “The revelations of Le Figaro on the Chinese spy program that targets France.” Through an exclusive series of special reports, Le Figaro revealed the CCP’s various espionage activities in France. This included how business social-networking websites, especially LinkedIn, were used to recruit French people to provide information to the CCP for the purpose of infiltrating France’s political, economic, and strategic realms, and for gaining extensive insider understanding in specific situations. The report also said that such cases are only the tip of the iceberg of the CCP’s espionage operations in France. [70] The CCP’s purpose is the large-scale plunder of sensitive information regarding the French state and its economic assets. Similar espionage activities have also taken place in Germany. [71]

d. The CCP Exports the ‘Chinese Model’ to Colonize Africa

After World War II, many African countries underwent decolonization, gaining independence. The continent gradually lost the attention of the West, as technology and capital were transferred from Western countries to China. Strengthened by these resources, the Chinese Communist Party then steadily encroached on Africa. The forces of the CCP started replacing what the Western sovereign powers had set up in African countries and infiltrating their politics, economies, and societies.

On one hand, the CCP has wooed African states under the banner of aiding those countries’ development, creating a united front against the United States and other free countries in the United Nations. On the other hand, through economic bribery and military aid, the CCP has relentlessly manipulated African governments and opposition groups, controlling the affairs of African countries while imposing the Chinese model and its values on them.

From 2001 to 2010, the CCP-controlled Export-Import Bank of China supplied US$62.7 billion in loans to African countries. Superficially, the loans did not appear to come with political conditions, and the interest rates on them were relatively low. However, because the loan agreements used natural resources as collateral, the CCP effectively obtained the rights to extract massive amounts of resources from those countries.

In 2003, the loan provided by the Export-Import Bank of China to Angola used crude oil as collateral in what is called the “Angola Model.” The following situation developed: “There are Chinese to drill the oil and then pump it into the Chinese pipeline guarded by Chinese strongmen on its way to a port built by the Chinese, where it is loaded onto Chinese tankers headed for China. Chinese to arm a government committing crimes against humanity; and Chinese to protect that government and stick up for it in the U.N. Security Council.” [72]

In 2016, China became Africa’s biggest trading partner and foreign direct investor. [73] In Africa, the CCP’s management model has been roundly criticized for its many ills: low wages, poor working conditions, shoddy products, “tofu-dreg engineering” (a term referring to the poor workmanship of buildings in China’s Sichuan Province, which led to many deaths following the 2008 earthquake), environmental pollution, bribery of government officials, and other corrupt practices. China’s mining operations in Africa also frequently met with protests from the local people.

Michael Sata, former president of Zambia, said during his presidential campaign in 2007: “We want the Chinese to leave and the old colonial rulers to return. They exploited our natural resources, too, but at least they took good care of us. They built schools, taught us their language, and brought us the British civilization. At least Western capitalism has a human face; the Chinese are only out to exploit us.” [74] In Zambia, Chinese influence can be seen everywhere. Sata was faced with no choice but to make deals with the CCP. Once he gained power, he immediately met with China’s ambassador, and in 2013, he visited China.

Sudan was one of the earliest bases that the CCP established in Africa, and over the past twenty years, the CCP’s investment in the northeastern country has grown exponentially. In addition to Sudan’s abundant oil reserves, its strategic location at the Red Sea was vital to the CCP’s plans. [75] In the 1990s, when Sudan was isolated by the international community because of its support for terrorism and radical Islam, the CCP took advantage and rapidly became Sudan’s largest trading partner, purchasing most of its oil exports. [76] The investment by the CCP helped Bashir’s totalitarian regime survive and develop despite its being contained by the West. The CCP’s military even exported weapons to Sudan during this period, indirectly facilitating the Darfur genocide in Sudan at the beginning of this century.

In the international community, the CCP played a two-faced role: While China sent out a peacekeeping team to the U.N. to mediate the conflict in Sudan, Beijing also openly invited the Sudanese president, a criminal wanted by the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity, to visit China. The CCP declared that no matter how the world changed, no matter what the situation was in Sudan, that China would always be Sudan’s friend. [77]

The CCP spares few efforts in wooing developing nations. The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) was established in 2000, with its first ministerial conference held in Beijing. In the subsequent forums that were held during key years, the leaders of the CCP threw money at Africa. In 2000, during the inaugural meeting, then-CCP head Jiang Zemin announced debt relief of 10 billion yuan for the poor countries in Africa. In 2006, when Beijing hosted the first FOCAC summit, the CCP not only announced the relief of debt, as of the end of 2005, for poor African countries it had diplomatic relations with, but also sent over US$10 billion in funding, credit, scholarships, and various aid projects. [78]

In 2015, during the summit in Johannesburg, South Africa, the CCP announced that it would provide capital of US$60 billion to work with African countries to carry out the ten major cooperation plans. [79] On August 28, 2018, the CCP’s vice minister of Commerce noted that “97 percent of products from thirty-three of the least-developed African countries have zero tariffs.” [80] On Sept. 3, 2018, during the China-Africa Cooperation Forum held in Beijing, the CCP again pledged that it would provide Africa with US$60 billion of no-strings-attached aid, interest-free loans, and project-specific capital and investment. At the same time, the CCP promised that for African countries with diplomatic relations with the CCP, it would cancel their inter-government debts that matured at the end of 2018. [81]

After several decades of painstaking effort, through commerce and trade, the CCP gained control over Africa’s economy. By using economic incentives, it has bought off many African governments, such that they follow Beijing’s every instruction. The outside world has noticed how the CCP regime is attempting to conquer Africa, and how it is using Africa as the stage for promoting and advocating the Party’s model. A scholar in the Chinese regime establishment declared: “China’s progress over the past forty years has proven that it doesn’t need to do what the West did to achieve success. History has not ended yet. The impact of this on Africa is beyond what you can imagine.” [82]

Following China, the former prime minister of Ethiopia, Meles Zanawi, established a Five-Year Plan for Ethiopia. The organization and structure of the ruling party, the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), also bore a striking resemblance to the CCP regime. An anonymous source within the Chinese Foreign Ministry said that many high-level officials in the EPRDP had gone to China to study and undergo training, and that the children of many important officials also went to China for their education. It was even more apparent at the ministerial level, where virtually every official was reading The Selected Writings of Mao Zedong. [83]

In March 2013, at the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) summit, the Ethiopian prime minister stated that China was both a trading partner and a development model for Ethiopia. Today, Ethiopia is called Africa’s “New China.” Its internet monitoring and censorship, the totalitarian nature of its government, its media control, and the like are all cast in the same mold as China’s. [84]

Ethiopia is not the only example. In 2018, the International Department of the Central Committee of the CCP held the fourth China-Africa Young Leaders Forum and the second China-Latin America Political Parties Forum in Shenzhen, Guangdong. The training was targeted at leaders and government officials.

Yun Sun, co-director of the China Program at the Washington-based Stimson Center, said that this kind of political training was to export the Chinese model to developing countries. She said:

They organized this kind of political training with three objectives in mind. First, that the CCP’s regime is legitimate — it is attempting to tell the world how the CCP has successfully managed China and how this success could be replicated for developing countries. Second, the CCP seeks to promote the experience China had in its development, during the so-called “exchange of ideas on how to govern the country.” Although the CCP is not explicitly “exporting revolution,” it is certainly exporting its ideological approach. The third objective is to strengthen exchanges between China and Africa. [85]

e. Advancing Into Latin America, Encroaching on America’s Backyard

Being geographically close to the United States, Latin America has historically been within America’s sphere of influence. Although a number of socialist regimes appeared in Latin America when the tide of communism swept over the world during the mid-twentieth century, those external influences never posed a threat to America.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the CCP began to target Latin America. Under the banner of “South to South cooperation,” it started to infiltrate all areas of society in the region, penetrating areas like economy, trade, military, diplomacy, culture, and the like. The governments of many Latin American countries, like Venezuela, Cuba, Ecuador, and Bolivia, were already hostile toward America, and the CCP made full use of this when it extended its tentacles across the ocean, further aggravating the tensions these nations had with America and heightening their anti-American stance.

On one hand, this would weaken the advantage the United States had in the region. On the other hand, the CCP could freely operate in America’s backyard, support the socialist regimes in Latin America, and thus lay the groundwork for long-term confrontation with the United States. It is no exaggeration to say that the CCP’s infiltration and influence in Latin America have far exceeded what the Soviet Union achieved.

First, the CCP used foreign trade and investment to expand its influence in Latin America. According to a report from the U.S.-based think tank Brookings Institution, in 2000, China’s trade with Latin America was only US$12 billion, but by 2013, it had ballooned to US$260 billion, an increase of more than twenty times. Prior to 2008, China’s loan commitments didn’t exceed US$1 billion, but in 2010, it had increased to US$37 billion. [86] From 2005 to 2016, China pledged to loan US$141 billion to Latin American countries. Today, the loans from China have exceeded those from the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank combined. The CCP also promised that it would provide Latin America with US$250 billion of direct investment by 2025 and that bilateral trade between China and Latin America would reach US$500 billion. Latin America is currently China’s second-largest investment target, directly after Asia.

For many South American countries, China has dominated foreign trade. The three biggest economies in Latin America — Brazil, Chile, and Peru — have China as their top trading partner. China is the second-largest for Argentina, Costa Rica, and Cuba. With highway construction in Ecuador, port projects in Panama, and a planned fiber-optic cable running from China to Chile, China’s influence throughout Latin America is evident. [87]

All the while, the CCP has deployed its state companies to turn Latin America into its resource base, with examples being Baosteel’s vast investment in Brazil, and the control Shougang has over the iron mines in Peru. The CCP also has shown great interest in Ecuador’s oil and Venezuela’s fuel oil and gold mines.

Additionally, the CCP invests heavily in Latin American infrastructure. In Argentina, the CCP has promised to invest US$25 million in ports that transport food, and to invest US$250 million in highways linking Argentina to Chile. [88]

In the military domain, the CCP has been stepping up its infiltration of Latin America in both scope and depth. Jordan Wilson, a researcher from the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, found that since 2000, the CCP has progressed from low-level to high-end military sales, reaching US$100 million in exports by 2010. Especially in the years since 2004, military exports from the CCP to Latin America have been increasing substantially. The recipients of these arms sales were all anti-U.S. regimes, such as Venezuela. At the same time, there has been an increase in military engagement such as training exchanges and joint military exercises. [89]

At the China-Argentina bilateral summit held in Beijing in 2015, if the agreements between both countries were finalized, they would mark a new phase of military cooperation between the two countries. This included the joint production of advanced, high-end products, including the establishment of the CCP’s first space-tracking and control station in the southern hemisphere within the borders of Argentina. It also included the sale of Chinese-made fighter aircraft to Argentina, with the total value amounting to between US$500 million and US$1 billion, exceeding the CCP’s total arms exports of US$130 million in 2014 across the Latin American region.

The CCP is rapidly developing ties with Latin America across diplomatic, economic, cultural, and military dimensions. In 2015, new requirements outlined in a defense white paper by the CCP “specifically assign the PLA [the People’s Liberation Army, the CCP’s military] to ‘actively participate in both regional and international security cooperation and effectively secure China’s overseas interests.'” [90]

On the diplomatic front, due to the CCP’s incentives and threats, Panama, Dominica, and El Salvador have chosen to sever diplomatic ties with the Republic of China (Taiwan) and instead embrace the communist People’s Republic of China. In June 2017, Panama announced that it had established relations with the PRC and ceased diplomatic relations with Taiwan, which had lasted over a century. Three years ago, the CCP started actively planning to invest in Panama’s infrastructure, such as ports, railways, and highways, with the total amount of investment reaching TWD$760 billion (about US$24 billion). [91] China has already acquired control over both ends of the Panama Canal, which is of great international strategic importance.

The CCP has also invested close to US$30 billion in El Salvador’s La Union port. In July 2018, the U.S. Ambassador to El Salvador, Jean Manes, warned in El Salvador’s El Diario De Hoy (Newspaper of Today) that Chinese investment in La Union had a military objective and deserved close attention. [92]

On the cultural front, the CCP has established thirty-nine Confucius Institutes and eleven Confucius Classrooms in Latin America and the Caribbean, with total enrollment exceeding 50,000. [93] Confucius Institutes have been identified as institutions used by the CCP for spying, as well as transmitting Party culture and the ideology of the CCP under the guise of traditional Chinese culture.

The expansion and infiltration of the CCP regime in Latin America is a serious threat to the United States. By using access to the Chinese market, dependence on economic investment and military aid to sway the policies of Latin American governments, China is able to pull them into its own sphere of influence and pit them against the United States. The canals, ports, railways, and communications facilities the CCP builds are all important tools that will be used in the future for expanding and establishing its global hegemony.

f. Communist China Flaunts Its Military Ambitions

At the 2018 Zhuhai Airshow in China, the debut of the CH-7 Rainbow drone caught the attention of military experts. The Rainbow series signifies that China has caught up in the technology for developing armed drones. A large number of CH-4 Rainbows have taken over the military markets of Jordan, Iraq, Turkmenistan, and Pakistan, countries that were restricted from purchasing armed drones from the United States. [94] The latest CH-7 Rainbow, in some ways, is as well-equipped as X-47B, the best the United States has to offer. An observer noticed that the latest CH-7 was revealed at the 2018 Airshow in China before it was tested by the PLA. [95] The video played at the airshow simulated the drones combating the enemy, which was clearly the U.S. military. [96] All of these moves clearly show China’s ambition to challenge the U.S. hegemony.

In recent years, as China’s military power became more developed, its ambition couldn’t stay unnoticed. Chinese vessels followed and harassed a U.S. surveillance ship (USNS Impeccable) in the South China Sea while it was conducting routine operations in international waters [97].

A similar incident took place later in Yellow Sea international waters. The Chinese vessels repeatedly came close to the USNS Victorious. They came within 30 yards of the U.S. ship, forcing it to make a dangerous sudden stop. [98] The most recent incident happened in September 2018, when a Chinese warship conducted aggressive maneuvers warning the USS Decatur to depart the area. The Chinese ship approached within 45 yards of the bow of the American vessel, forcing the Decatur to maneuver to prevent a collision. [99]

The CCP regime revealed its military ambitions long ago. Its strategy is to move from being a land power to being a maritime superpower and eventually establishing hegemony on both land and sea. In 1980, Beijing’s strategy was to perform active defense, and its focus was mainly on defending its own borders. At the time, its main adversary was the Soviet Army. In 2013, Beijing’s frontline defense turned into active offense for the purpose of expanding its frontline. It proposed “strategic offense as an important type of active defense.” [100]

In 2015, a Chinese military theorist and author of Unrestricted Warfare: China’s Master Plan to Destroy America made the following statements: “One Belt, One Road policy requires the army to have expeditionary ability.” “The Chinese land forces must take a flying leap and revolutionize itself.” “The national interests that come with One Belt, One Road are an enormous incentive for the Chinese army to reform.” [101] All this fuels Beijing’s aim to become a land-based superpower.

The U.S. Department of Defense said in its Annual Report to Congress in 2018:

China’s maritime emphasis and attention to missions guarding its overseas interests have increasingly propelled the PLA beyond China’s borders and its immediate periphery. The PLAN’s [the Chinese navy] evolving focus — from “offshore waters defense” to a mix of “offshore waters defense” and “open seas protection” — reflects the high command’s expanding interest in a wider operational reach. China’s military strategy and ongoing PLA reform reflect the abandonment of its historically land-centric mentality. Similarly, doctrinal references to “forward edge defense” that would move potential conflicts far from China’s territory suggest PLA strategists envision an increasingly global role. [102]

China’s goal is to first break through the boundaries of the first island chain and head to the open waters of the Pacific and Indian oceans. The first island chain stretches from the Kuril Islands in the north to the islands of Taiwan and Borneo in the south. The chain surrounds the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the western Pacific Ocean.

The purpose of China’s expansion in the South China Sea was to break through the first island chain. China built islands and militarized reef islets in the South China Sea. It equipped them with airports, shore-based aircraft, and missiles. Currently, three strategically important islets in the South China Sea, namely Fiery Cross Reef, Subi Reef, and Mischief Reef, have been fortified with anti-ship cruise missiles, surface-to-air missiles, and airfields. The islands have essentially formed stationary aircraft carriers that can be used in the event of military conflict. At the strategic level, the Chinese navy is capable of breaking through the boundaries of the first island chain and has the capability to fight in the open ocean.

Steve Bannon, former White House chief strategist, said on several occasions that the United States was headed for military conflict with China. “We’re going to war in the South China Sea in five to ten years,” he said in March 2016. “There’s no doubt about that.” [103]

Lawrence Sellin, former U.S. Army colonel and military commentator, said: “China is now attempting to extend its international influence beyond the South China Sea by linking to a similar framework for dominance in the northern Indian Ocean. If permitted to complete the link, China could be in an unassailable position to exert authority over roughly one-half of the global GDP.” [104]

The dominance of the South China Sea isn’t an issue of territory, but of global strategy. Each year, close to US$5 trillion in merchandise moves through the South China Sea. [105] For China, its Maritime Silk Road begins with the South China Sea, and an estimated 80 percent of its oil imports are projected to travel via the region. [106] Peacekeeping in the South China Sea following World War II fell to the United States and its allies. This poses a big threat to the Chinese regime, which is preparing to go to war with the United States and deems the South China Sea a key area for its economic growth and military expansion.

Taylor Fravel, the Arthur and Ruth Sloan Professor of Political Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), pointed out an interesting fact after figuring out how China has solved its territorial disputes in history. Since 1949, China has engaged in twenty-three territorial disputes with its neighbors. It settled seventeen of these disputes. In fifteen of these settlements, Beijing offered substantial compromises on the allocation of disputed territory. But when it comes to issues in the South China Sea, since the 1950s, even when the Chinese navy was militarily insignificant, it has taken an uncompromising approach and has claimed indisputable sovereignty over the region. China has never used such absolute language to other land disputes. [107]

Apparently, “fighting every inch” isn’t how China solves its border conflicts. Professor M. Taylor Fravel listed several reasons for China’s strong stance on South China Sea (SCS) issues. “China views offshore islands such as the Spratlys as strategic. From these islands, China can claim jurisdiction over adjacent waters that might contain significant natural resources and even jurisdiction over some activities of foreign naval vessels,” he said. “South China Sea outcrops can also be developed into forward outposts for projecting military power. … They might also aid China’s submarine force by preventing other states from tracking Chinese submarines that seek to enter the Western Pacific from the South China Sea.” [108]

The Chinese regime’s aggressive and expansionary actions in the South China Sea, especially the steps it has taken in recent years to change the status quo, have heightened military tensions in the greater region. Japan has reversed a decade of declining military expenditures, while India has revived its stalled plans for naval modernization. [109]

Masking its efforts with the excuse of safe passage for energy and freight, China’s active expansion in the South China Sea has tipped the balance of power in the region and increases the possibility of military conflict. One expert pointed out that “Chinese perception of the SCS as a security concern has led to an erosion of security in the region.” [110] This standpoint echoes that of Bannon.

In 2017, the Chinese military established its first overseas military base in Djibouti. Western scholars believe that Chinese military officials are looking beyond the Western Pacific Region and considering how to project power ever farther abroad. [111] For example, the CCP has recently been active in the Pacific Islands, regardless of the cost of such investments. Its long-term goal is that in the future, these island countries will serve as supply stations for the PLAN’s blue-water fleet. [112] The military expansion of the CCP is not limited to the traditional divisions of land, sea, and air; it is also making advances in the realms of space and electromagnetic warfare.

The CCP’s military ambitions are backed by vast reserves of manpower, equipment, and funding.

The CCP regime maintains the largest army in the world, with two million active military personnel. The People’s Liberation Army also has the largest ground force in the world, the largest number of warships, the third-most naval tonnage, and a massive air force. It has a trinity nuclear strike capability consisting of intercontinental ballistic missiles, ballistic-missile submarines, and strategic bombers.

The Chinese regime also has 1.7 million armed police personnel, who are under the unified leadership of the CCP Central Military Commission, and a large number of reserve and militia units. The Party’s military doctrine has always stressed the importance of “people’s war.” Under the CCP’s totalitarian system, it can quickly redirect all available resources toward military use. This means that the CCP has a pool of over a billion people (including overseas Chinese) from which it can draft huge numbers of people into militia service.

China’s GDP increased rapidly between 1997 and 2007. The CCP relies on economic power to rapidly expand armaments production and upgrade its arsenal. It is estimated that by 2020, the PLA ground forces will have five thousand modern main battle tanks. The PLAN will have at least two aircraft carriers in its fleet. Ninety percent of PLA Air Force fighters are of the fourth generation, and China has begun to introduce fifth-generation fighters.

In early 2017, China announced a 6.5 percent inflation-adjusted increase in its annual military budget to US$154.3 billion. Analysis of data from 2008 through 2017 indicates China’s official military budget grew at an annual average of 8 percent in inflation-adjusted terms over that period. [113] Observers estimate that the CCP’s actual military spending is twice what is officially acknowledged. Aside from this, the military strength of the regime is not fully reflected in military spending because its actual military expenditure is higher than the public figures, and the CCP can requisition many civilian resources and manpower at its discretion. The entire industrial system can serve the needs of war, which means its true military capabilities far exceed official data and the usual estimates.

The CCP will build a global system consisting of more than thirty Beidou (Big Dipper) navigation satellites by the end of 2020, with global GPS military positioning capabilities. The mass production of the Rainbow series of military drones serves more tactical purposes for the CCP. For example, in the Taiwan Strait layout, the CCP may gain advantages through its unmanned aircraft machine-sea tactics. [114] A large number of aerial drones can form clusters under the control of satellites and artificial intelligence, making them useful in regional and asymmetrical conflicts.

The stealth fighter Chinese J-20, which was unveiled at the Zhuhai Air Show, resembles the American F-22, while the Chinese J-31 appears modeled on the F-35. The PLA is closing the gap with the United States in developing modern jet fighters.

In addition, the CCP uses a broad range of espionage to catch up with the United States in technology. According to some recent estimates, more than 90 percent of espionage against the United States conducted via hacking comes from China, and the CCP’s networks infiltrate large American companies and the military, stealing technology and knowledge that the Chinese cannot develop independently. [115] China’s drone technology was stolen from the United States.

In terms of tactics, the PLA is keen on asymmetric capabilities: asymmetric warfare, asymmetric strategy, and asymmetric weapons. [116] Adm. Philip S. Davidson, the new commander of the Indo-Pacific Command, described China as a “peer competitor.” He said that China is not trying to match America’s firepower in a one-to-one ratio; rather, it is trying catch up with the United States by building critical asymmetric capabilities, including the use of anti-ship missiles and capabilities in submarine warfare. He warned that “there is no guarantee that the United States would win a future conflict with China.” [117]

The CCP relied on its research and development of Dongfeng 21D missiles (anti-ship ballistic missiles for use against U.S. aircraft carriers) to conduct similar sniper-mode confrontation. In 2018, the CCP publicly exhibited the land-based Eagle-Attack-12B supersonic anti-ship missile, known as the “aircraft carrier killer.” It has drawn a 550-kilometer “death zone” in the western Pacific, in which American carrier battle groups will be susceptible to ultra low-altitude saturation strikes. These missiles become an important military means of the PLA’s regional denial operations aimed at preventing U.S. military intervention.

Following the rapid expansion of its military power, the CCP regime has become a huge weapons exporter to the world’s authoritarian regimes, such as North Korea and the rogue regimes of the Middle East. On the one hand, the goal is to expand its military alliances, and on the other hand, to disperse and counter U.S. military power. The CCP regime spreads and encourages anti-American sentiment and hatred. It is easy for the CCP to unite with other anti-American regimes to further its hegemonic ambitions.

At the same time, the CCP leadership advocates terrorist military theories such as the aforementioned unrestricted warfare. It advocates the necessity of war by saying that “war is not far from us; it is the birthplace of the ‘Chinese century.’” It legitimizes violence and terror with words such as “the dead are the driving force for the advancement of history.” It justifies aggression with the sayings “there is no right to development without the right to war” and “the development of one country poses a threat to another — this is the general rule of world history.” [118]

Zhu Chenghu, dean of the Defense College of the National Defense University of the People’s Republic of China, publicly stated that if the United States intervenes in a war in the Taiwan Strait, China will preemptively use nuclear weapons to raze hundreds of cities in the United States, even if all of China to the east of Xi’an (a city located at the western edge of China’s traditional boundaries) were destroyed as a consequence. [119] Zhu’s statements were a public display of the CCP’s ambitions and a means of probing reactions by the international community.

It is important to be aware of the fact that the CCP’s military strategies are always subordinate to its political needs, and that the regime’s military ambitions are only a small part of its overall schemes. The Party’s approach is to rely on both economic and military means to impose its communist ideology on the rest of the world. [120]

3. ‘Unrestricted Warfare’ With Chinese Communist Characteristics

In the process of realizing its global ambitions, the CCP recognizes no moral limitations and obeys no laws. As discussed in the Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party, the history of the CCP’s founding is a process of gradually perfecting the evilness found through history, both in China and around the world, including the Party’s nine inherited traits: “evil, deceit, incitement, unleashing the scum of society, espionage, robbery, fighting, elimination, and control.” [1] These traits are seen everywhere through the CCP’s global expansion, and the Party has continually enhanced and strengthened its techniques and their malignancy. The CCP’s “unrestricted warfare” is a concentrated expression of these evil traits and an important part of its success.

The idea of unrestricted warfare has always run through the CCP’s military practices. In 1999, two Chinese colonels officially used the term “unrestricted warfare” in their theoretical military work. As the name implies, unrestricted warfare has these characteristics: “[It is] war beyond all boundaries and limits, … forcing the enemy to accept one’s own interests by all means, including methods of force and non-force, military and non-military, killing and non-killing. … The means are all-inclusive, information is omnipresent, the battlefield is everywhere … beyond all political, historical, cultural, and moral restraints.”[2]

Unrestricted warfare means that “all weapons and technologies can be used at will; it means that all the boundaries between the worlds of war and non-war, military and non-military, are broken.” It utilizes methods that span nations and spheres of activity. Finance, trade, the media, international law, outer space, and more are all potential battlefields. Weapons include hacking, terrorism, biochemical warfare, ecological warfare, atomic warfare, electronic warfare, drug trafficking, intelligence, smuggling, psychological and ideological warfare, sanctions, and so on.[3]

The authors of Unrestricted Warfare believe that “the generalization of war” is the inevitable direction of the future and that every field must be militarized. They believe that a large number of nonmilitary personnel who do not wear military uniforms are the key to unrestricted warfare. The government must quickly prepare for combat in all invisible fields of war. [4]

Many people refer to various professional or social environments as “battlefields” by way of metaphor, but the CCP takes this literally. All fields are battlefields because the CCP is in a state of war at all times, and everyone is a combatant. All conflicts are regarded as struggles of life and death. Slight problems are magnified to be questions of principle or ideology, and the whole country is mobilized, as if in a state of active war, to meet the CCP’s goals.

In the 1940s, during the Chinese Civil War, the CCP used economic warfare to harm the economy of the Nationalist government (Kuomintang, or KMT) of the Republic of China and cause it to collapse. The Party used espionage to obtain the KMT military’s plans even before the KMT’s own troops received them, and used numerous conspiracies while communist armies fought on the battlefield.

The CCP still uses these unrestricted means today, yet on an even larger and broader scale. Unrestricted warfare, breaking all conventional rules and moral restraints, leaves most Western people, governments, and companies unable to understand how the CCP behaves, much less compete with it.

The CCP implements many seemingly mundane means, in numerous fields, to achieve its goals:

*Exporting Party culture and lies to the world through foreign propaganda*Controlling global media and carrying out ideological warfare*Using fame, honey traps, relationships, bribery, and despotic power to unite the leaders of the United Nations, important political figures of various countries, experts in think tanks and academic circles, tycoons, and influentials from all walks of life to cultivate friendships that support the CCP and help it through crises*Supporting, inciting, and allying with rogue regimes to distract the United States and Western governments*Using trade diplomacy to make free countries compete against one another, with the market of more than one billion Chinese consumers as bait*Deepening economic integration and interdependency to tie up other countries*Violating WTO trade rules*Making false reform commitments to accumulate trade surplus and foreign exchange reserves*Using the fruits of capitalism to fatten the body of socialism*Using the market, foreign exchange, and financial resources as weapons to suppress human rights through economic unrestricted warfare and to force other countries to abandon moral responsibility and universal values*Forcing Chinese working abroad in private enterprises to steal information from developed countries*Making hostages of China’s citizens and those of other countries

a. The CCP Promotes Party Culture Worldwide

When a branch of China’s state-run broadcaster was established in London, the CCP encountered an enviable problem: receiving too many job applications. Nearly 6,000 people applied for 90 positions that required reporting news from China’s perspective. [5] People’s eagerness to work for the CCP’s mouthpiece reflects the decline of the Western media industry and the threat that the CCP’s foreign propaganda poses to the world.

The World’s Largest Propaganda Machine

Mao Zedong once demanded that Xinhua News Agency “control the earth and let the whole world hear our voices.” [6] The CCP is now able to achieve what it could not in the past.

After the 2008 financial crisis, Western media faced their own financial and business crises. The CCP seized the opportunity to deploy its “great external propaganda” campaign. The People’s Daily, China Daily, Xinhua News Agency, China Central Television (CCTV), China Radio International (CRI), and other CCP mouthpieces set up newspaper boxes, radio stations, and television stations around the world.

Chang Ping, former news director of the major Chinese newspaper Southern Weekend, said that in 2009, the Chinese regime allocated 45 billion yuan (US$6.52 billion) to the “national strategy for external propaganda in public relations and publicity.” According to Chinese media sources, the 45 billion yuan was only a small part of the total expenditure that had been publicized. [7] A well-known scholar at George Washington University told the BBC estimated in 2016 that the CCP spends $10 billion a year on propaganda. [8]

In March 2018, the CCP integrated CCTV, CRI, and China National Radio to establish the China Media Group, also called Voice of China, led by the Propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. It has become the largest propaganda machine in the world. Xinhua rented a giant billboard in Times Square in New York City to advertise the Communist Party. In 2016, the CCP changed the name of CCTV overseas to CGTN (China Global Television Network).

The CCP’s foreign propaganda apparatus attempts to advance with the times. Overseas stations implement a localization strategy, recruiting mainly local reporters and presenters. Photos taken at the time of Xi Jinping’s February 2016 video interview with CCTV America shows that the majority of the journalists employed there were not Chinese. [9] The content of TV programs is transferred from China to foreign countries, and the reporters are hired locally. China’s state-run media thus produces local packaging in the target country — using local faces and voices to spout the Communist Party’s thinking and conflate the CCP with China. It uses locals abroad to spread the CCP’s stories and the CCP’s voice — not China’s true stories and not the voices of the Chinese people.

This is the character of the CCP’s external propaganda push. The Party also provides scholarships to younger generations of international journalists, including in the areas of food and education, so that they can study or be trained in China and, at the same time, be instilled with the CCP’s views of journalism.

Along with the economic colonization of Africa, CCP media has also reached all corners of Africa. The China-based television and media group StarTimes Media Group is now operating in thirty countries on the African continent and claims to be “the fastest growing and most influential digital TV operator in Africa.” A Uganda taxi driver was quoted by the People’s Daily as saying, “More and more Africans understand Chinese society by watching contemporary Chinese TV dramas.” [10]

CCP propaganda has largely been unsuccessful due to a lack of credibility. However, making foreign media the spokesperson of the CCP’s media, ruthlessly attacking the media and individuals who criticize the CCP, and forcing everyone to support the CCP are all part of the recipe of the CCP’s external propaganda.

Turning Media All Over the World Into Xinhua News Agency

In 2015, the foreign ministers of ten countries condemned the CCP for building artificial islands in the contested South China Sea. At this time, a radio station in the Western suburbs of Washington, D.C., sounded a different note. Not only did it not mention the CCP’s reclamation activities, but it claimed that external forces had attempted to fabricate the facts and aggravate tensions in the South China Sea. [11] This station, called WCRW, voices a great deal of content expressing the position of the CCP — and curiously, it runs no advertising. Its only customer is a Los Angeles company, G&E Studio Inc., itself 60 percent controlled by China Radio International (CRI) in Beijing. G&E has at least fifteen similar stations running in the United States, covering not only Washington, D.C., but also Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, Atlanta, Philadelphia, Houston, Honolulu, Portland, and Vancouver, among others.

The Chinese Communist Party’s mouthpiece, China Radio International (CRI), relies on a local company registered under the name of a Chinese-American. With controlling shares, it uses local U.S. radio stations to promote CCP propaganda. The biggest benefit of this operation, and the apparent reason for it, is to conceal the role of the CCP. In order to maximally mislead the audience, listeners are made to feel that Americans themselves are expressing their support for the CCP.

In 2015, CRI ran thirty-three such stations in at least fourteen countries. By 2018, CRI had fifty-eight stations in thirty-five countries. [12] Because the control and operations are carried out through the use of local Chinese companies, it seems that democratic countries are helpless to do anything about the situation legally, although many people are unhappy with the Party’s hidden propaganda. The CCP’s external propaganda push has taken advantage of the loopholes in democratic societies. In the name of democracy, the CCP advocates for dictatorship and attempts to manipulate the audience into adopting its views by exploiting loopholes in the laws of free societies. Thus, in the name of democracy, it aims at destroying democracy.

The China Daily‘s inserts, which in Chinese are summed up with the phrase “making a voyage on a borrowed ship,” are another important part of the CCP’s external propaganda campaign. China Daily publishes a Chinese news insert in The Washington Post and uses a layout style that can give readers the impression that it’s The Washington Post’s content. [13] In addition to The Washington Post, the CCP has struck similar deals with more than thirty newspapers, including The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Daily Telegraph, and Le Figaro. The word “advertising” on the insert is placed in an inconspicuous location, and readers can easily mistake the material for the newspapers’ own content.

On September 23, 2018, China Daily also inserted four pages of advertisements that looked like ordinary news and commentary in the local Iowa newspaper Des Moines Register. The material attacked the U.S. president, and some called it an attempt to influence the midterm elections.[14]

The Communist Party excels in controlling overseas Chinese media. Through coercion and enticement, the CCP has recruited a large number of Chinese-language media, including some founded by Taiwanese with a previously strong tradition of anti-communism. The CCP-sponsored World Chinese Media Forum is used as a platform to communicate the party’s instructions to Chinese media around the world. On September 10, 2017, the Ninth World Chinese Media Forum was held in Fuzhou. More than 460 overseas Chinese media executives from more than sixty countries and regions on five continents attended the meeting.

An example of the impact of this media-control work can be found in the reporting of a California-based Chinese-language media outlet, Qiao Bao, which amplifies CCP propaganda in the Western press. During the CCP’s Nineteenth National Congress, this media outlet’s lengthy reports were almost identical to those published by official Party media. [15]

During the Umbrella Movement protests in Hong Kong in 2014, the Overseas Chinese Media Association controlled by the CCP, with more than 160 media members, urgently organized 142 pro-China media outlets in Asia, Europe, Africa, the United States, and Australia to publish the “Safeguarding Hong Kong Declaration” supporting the CCP’s perspective. The extent and efficacy of the regime’s media penetration overseas have surprised the outside world.[16]

Suppressing opposing voices is another aspect of CCP overseas propaganda operations. The Party threatens journalists who expose it with visa denials and other forms of harassment, leading them to self-censor. The result is that there are few global media corporations that take a completely independent stance on the CCP without regard to consequences imposed by the regime.

There are several ways a scoundrel might make others view him in a more positive light. One way would be to start from within, abandoning evil and becoming good, and thus no longer being a scoundrel. Other people would then, over time, naturally come to recognize the transformation. The second way would be to begin exerting pressure on others, trying to brainwash them into not recognizing the scoundrel for what he is. The third way would be to mount the most audacious plan: to use manipulation, lies, gaslighting, and brainwashing in an attempt to turn everyone else into scoundrels, too. This would offer the greatest protection.

The CCP has used both the second and third methods simultaneously over decades. It employs a variety of large-scale propaganda activities to target foreigners, changing the minds of people to make them think that the CCP is no scoundrel at all. In some cases, it’s even able to pull them into the mire, turning them into scoundrels along with the Party. Through extensive investments and shrewd operations, the Party has now established a worldwide system for creating alliances, isolating enemies, and turning neutrals into sympathizers or scoundrels.

Brainwashing Through Culture, Literature, and Art

Cultural brainwashing is an important tool for the CCP’s destruction of traditional Chinese culture. In recent years, the Party has advertised its commitment to restoring traditional culture, but as discussed in previous chapters of this book, this wave of supposed restoration of traditional culture has, in fact, left out the soul of tradition, replacing it with a fake version infused with deviant Party culture. This has not only deceived the world, but also further devastated traditional culture.

On top of that, in order to further influence the world, one of the key elements of the Party’s external propaganda is to export so-called traditional Chinese culture as defined by the CCP, and use traditional Chinese customs and practices to whitewash the CCP. This is another form of perception manipulation, or brainwashing. A typical example of this project is the Confucius Institute.

According to incomplete statistics, as of the end of 2017, the CCP had established at least 525 Confucius Institutes (targeting colleges and universities) and 1,113 Confucius Classrooms (targeting elementary and secondary schools) in more than 145 countries. [17] The Confucius Institute’s funds come from Hanban, which is affiliated with the CCP’s United Front Work Department (UFWD). The use of funds is supervised by personnel from the CCP’s embassies and consulates. Confucius Institutes subvert important academic principles of autonomy and freedom of inquiry, aim to promote the CCP’s version of events, distort the history of China, and omit the CCP’s appalling human rights record. In some Confucius Institute classrooms, quotes from Mao are hung on the wall. On the surface, Confucius Institutes claim to teach Chinese culture, while, in fact, they promote communist doctrine and transmit Party culture.

In addition to offering cultural and language courses, Confucius Institutes also distort history and even organize protests against activities the CCP believes threaten its rule. For example, invited speakers have repeated the CCP’s lies about Tibet. Others have claimed the Korean War was triggered because the U.S.military bombed Chinese villages and that the Party was forced to send troops. [18]

The U.S. National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, adopted in 2018, includes a strongly worded condemnation of the CCP’s attempts to influence U.S. public opinion, especially “media, cultural institutions, businesses, and academic and political groups.” The act explicitly prohibits any national defense funds from being given to Chinese-language departments in U.S. universities where there is a Confucius Institute. [19]

From September to October 2011, Chinese authorities dispatched a song-and-dance troupe of three hundred performers to the Kennedy Center for the Arts in Washington, D.C., where the CCP staged its violent communist dance-drama Red Detachment of Women. In September 2016, in Los Angeles, a high-profile concert was held to commemorate the eightieth anniversary of the victory of the Red Army’s Long March. At the same time, in Australia, the performance Red Songs Concert to Commemorate the 40th Anniversary of Mao Zedong’s Death was scheduled to be held at the Sydney and Melbourne city halls. Local Chinese organizations in Australia protested and were finally able to stop the show. In 2017, the CCP sent the Red Detachment of Women performance to Australia, and in 2018, staged another violent communist dance-drama, The Red Guards of Honghu Lake, in Sydney and Melbourne.

When it comes to information warfare, the CCP’s totalitarian regime occupies the high ground compared to democratic regimes. For example, the Party blocks media from all democratic countries, but is able to insert its state-run media in democratic societies. The CCP prevents media from democratic countries from adding inserts to its media, but the CCP can insert its own content into the media from democratic societies, or it simply acquires them when convenient. CCP media serve the Party first and foremost, and Western journalists will never have executive roles. The CCP can, however, send its own undercover people into Western media or train foreigners into being mouthpiece reporters for the Party’s media. As long as the West still regards the CCP media as legitimate, the West will continue to lose in the information war. In 2018, the U.S. Department of Justice ordered Xinhua News Agency and China Global TV Network to register as foreign agents in the United States. It was a correct step, but is still far from sufficient — the problem is the lack of reciprocity in the first place.

The CCP’s foreign propaganda campaign is a major project aimed at globally reshaping the public’s views on the regime, and it has met with some of its desired results. The CCP spreads its noxious ideology through this propaganda work, which has severely misled people about the regime, its mode of operations, its human rights abuses, and communism in general.

b. United Front Work Aims to Disintegrate the Free World From Within

On December 18, 2018, the CCP celebrated the fortieth anniversary of so-called reform and opening-up. It awarded the China Reform Friendship Medal to ten foreigners in an attempt to “thank the international community for supporting China’s reform.” These ten foreigners included Juan Antonio Samaranch, former president of the IOC, which granted China the right to host the 2008 Summer Olympics; and Robert Lawrence Kuhn, an American businessman who lent his name as author of a fawning biography of the former head of the CCP, Jiang Zemin. In fact, over the past few decades, countless politicians and celebrities have helped the CCP by playing different roles, depending on their motivations. Unfortunately, all have become victims of the CCP’s united-front tactics and thus accomplices.

In order to advance its goal of ultimately dominating the world, the CCP adopts any means necessary. This is a key part of the “united front” concept. Mao labeled the united front as one of the CCP’s “three magic treasures.” The civil war-era Kuomintang government was deceived by these tactics and suffered great losses as a result. Today’s Western governments have also been deceived and suffered losses. The good news is that Western society is beginning to wake up, and a number of investigative reports about the united front have recently been published.

The U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission (USCC), a Congressional commission, issued a report titled China’s Overseas United Front Work on Aug. 24, 2018, outlining the CCP’s overseas united front work structure and operations, including how the CCP uses various types of governmental and non-governmental organizations for its united-front work and what the implications have been to the United States and other Western countries. In recent years, the CCP has emphasized the importance of its united front work. The report states, “This elevation of the importance of United Front work has resulted in an increased number of UFWD officials assigned to top CCP and government posts, adding roughly 40,000 new UFWD cadres.”[20]

Global Public Policy Institute (GPPI), a think tank in Europe, published a report in 2018 detailing the activities of CCP’s united front in Europe.[21] On Nov. 29, 2018, the Hoover Institution at Stanford University also released a detailed report on the same topic. The report states: “China’s influence activities have moved beyond their traditional United Front focus on diaspora communities to target a far broader range of sectors in Western societies, ranging from think tanks, universities, and media to state, local, and national government institutions. China seeks to promote views sympathetic to the Chinese Government, policies, society, and culture; suppress alternative views; and co-opt key American players to support China’s foreign policy goals and economic interests.”[22]

The CCP’s united front primarily targets the following actors in the West:

Politicians and Businesspeople

The USCC report says the CCP regards its united front work as an important tool to strengthen domestic and international support for the Party. This includes buying off Western politicians. Through persuasion, temptation, and relationship-building, the CCP maintains close ties with many high-level officials in Western governments. These politicians are treated as the PRC’s “state treasures,” given lavish gifts, and conferred titles such as “old friends of China.” Among them are current and former United Nations secretaries general, heads of states, high-ranking government officials, members of Congress, senior government advisers, heads of international organizations, famous academics and think-tank scholars, and media consortium tycoons. All these people in the united front network are expected to voice their support for the CCP at crucial moments.

Patrick Ho Chi-ping, a former Hong Kong secretary for Home Affairs, was indicted in the United States for bribery in December 2018. Ho had close ties to the CCP, and bribed high-ranking officials in two African nations on behalf of Chinese energy corporations in order to obtain mining rights. Ho also bribed two U.N. secretaries general, through whom the CCP was able to establish close ties to high-ranking officials in other nations.[23]

U.S. court papers also document the corruption and espionage carried out by Chinese telecommunications giant ZTE. Two high-ranking telecom officials in Liberia testified that between 2005 and 2007, ZTE heavily bribed numerous officials in that country, including the president, government officials, and judges.

The CCP uses money and women to entrap political leaders and then use them as pawns for the regime’s ends. In a memorandum following the November 2014 midterm U.S. elections, CEFC, a CCP-linked company, outlined a plan to establish relationships and friendships with politicians. Ye Jianming, the now-disgraced chairman of CEFC China Energy Company Limited, has strong ties with European political leaders. He once asked a security advisor for a U.S. president whether he could persuade the U.S. army not to bomb Syria because he wanted to buy up oil fields there. Ye also boasted connections to senior officials at the Federal Reserve and the United Nations, as well as family members of U.S. government officials.[24]

When deemed necessary, the CCP can form various temporary united fronts to isolate its enemies. For instance, the CCP has used the votes of developing nations whose officials it previously suborned to pass or block motions at the United Nations. Via proxies, it has disrupted U.S. efforts to stabilize the Middle East. In the meantime, it has been able to forge new economic alliances. In the recent U.S.-China trade war, the CCP sought to sow conflict between the United States and Europe with the aim of using the latter as part of another united front against the United States

Local politicians are also targets of the CCP’s united front work. These include community leaders, city council members, mayors, state senators, and others. The usual approach is to donate to local politicians through Chinese organizations or merchants, who are invited to visit China where they receive bribes. Their family businesses get special treatment in China, and even their assistants are bribed. Cases of sexual entrapment, often involving blackmail, are known as “honey traps,” and the CCP is thought to use this tactic often.

Chen Yonglin, former officer at the Chinese Consulate in Sydney, who defected in 2005 to Australia, told The Epoch Times that the CCP’s United Front Work Department had infiltrated the Australian government and corrupted officials. Chen said: “The amount of private bribery for the officials far surpassed political donations. Especially those higher-ranking officials; the bribes were huge. … Another aspect of bribery is the all-expenses-paid trips to China, where officials are treated as kings. This includes prostitution paid for by Chinese companies. Many officials changed their stances after returning from China.”[25]

With its strong financial backing, the CCP has paid communist and leftist politicians around the world to become its agents in those nations in order to further spread communist ideology.

The CCP uses the same tactics on those in the financial sector and a number of industries. Business people and entrepreneurs are treated as kings and given business incentives. In return, they become the CCP’s voice for lobbying the government and influencing the country’s financial and economic policies. In the U.S.-China trade war, the CCP has had frequent contact with Wall Street tycoons. Many top financial companies and international corporations do business in China. In order to expand their business there, they hired numerous children of high-ranking Chinese officials, called “princelings,” and the latter are the Party’s eyes, ears, and voice in such companies.

Infiltrating Academic Circles and Think Tanks

Many think tanks in the West directly shape their country’s policies and strategy toward China; therefore, the CCP pays special attention to them. The Hoover Institution report states that the Party exerts control over think tanks via financial sponsorship. It has bribed, controlled, or influenced almost all think tanks related to China. The CCP also pays close attention to the perspectives of both political parties in the United States and introduces topics that suit its agenda. [26]

The Washington Post has reported that Chinese companies control some American think tanks. For example, the Chinese tech giant Huawei not only poses a threat to national security in the United States, but also tries to influence think tanks in Washington by providing them with financial support. [27]

Huawei also sponsors over twenty universities in the U.K., including Cambridge University and Oxford University. Professor Anthony Glees, a British expert in national security, said: “This is about the electronic agenda being driven by the injection of Chinese money into British universities. That is a national security issue.”[28] Huawei, through the Seeds for the Future program, attracted a large number of young talented engineers — a classic communist subversion tactic.

The CCP buys overseas scholars, especially China scholars, with money, status, and fame. Some such scholars then closely follow the CCP’s rhetoric, publishing books and articles to explain the CCP’s “peaceful rise,” the concepts of the “China dream” or the “China model.” The viewpoints of these scholars then indirectly influence the China policies of Western governments — precisely the CCP’s goal.

To make things worse, over the past several decades, Western humanities scholars and sociologists have been heavily influenced by strains of communist ideology. With a small amount of CCP influence, they can go from merely supporting leftist ideology to actually embracing communism.

Coercing and Using Overseas Chinese Leaders, Businessmen, and Students

The CCP has successfully exploited the patriotism of overseas Chinese students to create sympathy for CCP policies and ideology. To gain the support of overseas Chinese, the CCP provides them with financial support. It frequently uses the phrase “the love for one’s homeland, the friendship of kin” as part of its deliberate conflation of China and the CCP in order to deceive overseas Chinese. The Party also uses an extensive overseas network of organizations, supporters, and spies to marginalize and attack its opponents.

The CCP uses various pretexts to invite overseas Chinese to do business and invest in China. It gives overseas Chinese leaders special treatment when visiting the country, arranges overseas pro-CCP figures to meet with high-ranking officials, and has them all attend PRC national-day celebrations.

Zach Dorfman, senior fellow at Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, published a long investigative report in Politico revealing Chinese and Russian espionage activities in Silicon Valley, with particular focus on Chinese actors.[29] The report examined Rose Pak, the San Francisco Chinese powerbroker, as an example. It noted that the CCP used Pak to have the Chinese Chamber of Commerce in San Francisco marginalize Falun Gong, Tibetan, pro-Taiwanese, and Uyghur groups, preventing them from participating in the Chinese New Year parade.

The USCC report also exposed how Chinese Student and Scholar Associations (CSSA) are controlled by the CCP. On their own website, some CSSA branches directly state that they were established by the local Chinese consulate or are its subsidiaries,[30] while in other cases, the control is carried out clandestinely. These organizations receive orders from the Chinese consulates, preventing any dissonant voices from being aired. Consulate officials harass, intimidate, and monitor students who dissent from the CCP line.

CSSAs and those affiliated with them sometimes even conduct industrial and economic espionage. In 2005, France’s Le Monde reported that the CSSA at the University of Leuven, Belgium, was the CCP’s front-line spy group in the country. Sometimes such networks consist of several hundred spies working in various companies in Europe.[31]

Infiltrating and Influencing the Movie and Entertainment Industries

In recent years, the CCP has increased efforts at infiltrating the U.S. entertainment industry. In 2012, Wanda Group spent US$2.6 billion to acquire AMC, the second-largest theater chain in the United States. Since then, it has acquired Legendary Entertainment for $3.5 billion, and Carmike, the fourth-largest theater chain in the United States, for $1.1 billion.[32] In 2016, Ali Pictures acquired a stake in Steven Spielberg’s Amblin Partners, and will place a representative on the Amblin Partners board of directors to participate in major decision-making there.[33]

One of the CCP’s main goals in infiltrating the entertainment industry is to have the world follow the CCP’s script — painting a positive image of the CCP and China’s so-called peaceful rise to conceal the regime’s tyrannical ambitions. At the same time, this image covers up how the exportation of Party culture has corrupted the world. From 1997 to 2013, China invested in only twelve Hollywood films out of the top one hundred highest-grossing movies. But in the ensuing five years, China invested in forty-one of Hollywood’s most popular movies.[34]

Hollywood covets China’s rapidly growing movie market, and executives are well-aware that they’ll be excluded from it if they fail to toe the Party line. Thus, they set about ensuring they are in compliance with Chinese censorship.[35] American movie stars who’ve taken a stand on the CCP are blocked from entering the country, or their films are excluded from the Chinese market. Hollywood star Richard Gere’s clear expression of his position on Tibet, for instance, not only led to his being denied access to China, but also limited his own career even in the United States. In order not to offend or provoke the CCP, film producers have declined to invest in his films.[36] Other movie stars have been blacklisted for other transgressions.

Intimidating Overseas Dissidents

The CCP has used intimidation and incentives to influence Western scholars, especially China experts who are critical of the CCP. This has led many to willingly self-censor. Intimidation includes refusal to issue visas, which has the greatest impact on young scholars. For the sake of professional development, many voluntarily avoid human rights, Tibet issues, and other sensitive topics that might attract the Party’s ire.

Perry Link, a professor of East Asian Studies, was put on the blacklist for his scholarship on the Tiananmen Square massacre, which put the communist regime in an unfavorable light. His treatment subsequently turned into a lesson for young scholars as to what not to do.[37]

In October 2017, Benedict Rogers, deputy chairman of the British Conservative Party’s Human Rights Commission and supporter of the Hong Kong Democratic Movement, went to Hong Kong for personal activities but was refused entry and repatriated at the Hong Kong airport.[38]

The aforementioned report by the USCC also said that Chinese intelligence agents attempt to recruit ethnic minorities, including Uyghurs living abroad, to act as spies. Refusal may lead to persecution of their family in China. Uyghurs who have been threatened state that the purpose of such threats is not only to collect information about the Uyghur diaspora, but also to create discord and prevent them from effectively opposing the CCP.[39]

c. Unrestricted Economic Warfare Is the CCP’s Heavy Weaponry

If external foreign propaganda, perception-management, and united front work are the Party’s forms of soft power, then its high-tech industry must become the Party’s hard power. In the 1950s, the CCP’s slogan was to “surpass the United Kingdom and catch up with the United States” — but it was a farce. Today, however, the same strategy has become a legitimate threat.

Since the 1980s, the CCP has implemented a series of strategic plans in science and technology, including the 863 Program (the National High-Tech R&D Program), Program 973 (National Program on Key Basic Research Projects), and Made in China 2025 (to transform China from a manufacturing country to a manufacturing power by 2025, taking the lead in big data, 5G, and the like). The strategy includes ambitious plans for artificial intelligence, in which China aims to be a world leader by 2030. The purpose is to upgrade China’s status as the world factory to an advanced manufacturing giant, thereby attaining global supremacy.

It’s not wrong for a nation to pursue industrial development. For a country to use state power to allocate resources to research and development in key industries is also legitimate. Why, then, is the CCP’s high-tech development strategy a threat to the West?

The most fundamental reason is that China under the Chinese communist regime is not a normal country. The purpose of the regime’s technological development is not so it can join the ranks of the world’s other high-tech countries or compete on equal footing with them. Its purpose is to use any means to eliminate opponents and take down Western economies — especially that of the United States — and thus be one step closer to dominating the world. The CCP’s development of its scientific and technological strength is for serving its communist ideology, and ultimately for having communism rule the world.

Technological innovation is the fruit of individual liberty in a capitalist society, which is in natural conflict with the totalitarian rule of communism. Researchers in mainland China are deprived of the freedom to use foreign search engines, let alone express their freedom in other ways. Thus it’s indeed difficult to make real breakthroughs in scientific and technological innovation given the CCP’s restrictions on thought and access to information.

To make up for this, the Party has used various underhanded means to steal Western technology and win over cutting-edge talent, and has also used unfair and extraordinary measures to undermine Western industry. The CCP has stolen technologies the West has spent decades and vast sums of money to develop. It assimilates and improves upon the stolen intellectual properties and then simply mass-produces them at little cost and dumps the products on the world, debilitating private Western enterprises and economies. Thus, the regime has been using its techniques of unrestricted warfare in its technological competition with the West.

The Trap of Trading Technology for Market Access

In recent years, China’s high-speed rail network has become almost like an advertisement for the country’s high-end manufacturing prowess, and the idea of “high-speed rail diplomacy” has developed. Chinese state media has called China’s work in this area “legendary,” given its rapid development in only ten short years. But to Western companies, China’s high-speed rail buildup has been a nightmare of technological theft, entrapment, and what ultimately became huge losses in exchange for only small gains.

Work on the high-speed rail project began in the early 1990s. By the end of 2005, Chinese authorities abandoned the idea of developing the technology independently and turned to Western technology. The CCP’s goal was clear from the beginning: It planned to first acquire the technology, then manufacture it, and finally sell the same technology more cheaply on the global market.

The Chinese side requires that foreign manufacturers sign a technology-transfer contract with a Chinese domestic firm before bidding on construction contracts, or else they’re not allowed to enter bids. The Chinese authorities also established formal internal assessments called “technology-transfer-implementation evaluations,” which focus not on how well foreign businesses teach their systems, but rather on how well domestic companies learn them. If domestic enterprises don’t learn the technology, China doesn’t pay. The authorities also require that by the last batch of orders, local companies must produce 70 percent of the orders. [40]

Because foreign companies felt China’s market was an opportunity not be missed, such terms didn’t prevent them from signing on. Japan’s Kawasaki Heavy Industries, France’s Alstom, Germany’s Siemens, and Canada’s Bombardier all submitted bids. Despite the promise of market access in exchange for technology transfer, no Western company was willing to transfer its core, most-valued technology. However, the CCP continued to play games with several of the companies in the hope that at least one would relent and give up something of real value for the benefit of short-term interests. Sure enough, when it appeared that one company would get a chunk of the Chinese market in exchange for technology, the others began to fear being left out. Thus, several of them fell into the CCP’s trap, with the result that China was able to extract key technology from the above four high-speed rail companies.

The Chinese government has invested huge sums in the project, acting regardless of cost. China’s network subsequently entered a period of exponential development as Chinese firms built out the world’s most extensive high-speed rail system by mileage. In a few years, China rapidly assimilated Western technology, which was then turned into “independent intellectual property rights.” What really shocked Western companies was when China then began applying for high-speed rail patents abroad, with Chinese firms becoming fierce competitors against their former teachers on the international market. Because Chinese companies have accumulated a great deal of practical experience in this realm, and are afforded all the industrial advantages brought by large-scale production capacity and massive state financial backing, China’s high-speed rail industry possesses a competitive advantage against peers. It has become a key element of the Party’s One Belt, One Road project.

While foreign companies once dreamed of getting their share of the huge market for high-speed rail in China, they found instead that not only were they squeezed out of that market, but they also had created a tough international competitor. Yoshiyuki Kasai, an honorary chairman of the Central Japan Railway Company, said with distress: “The Shinkansen [Japanese bullet train] is the jewel of Japan. The technology transfer to China was a huge mistake.” [41]

The CCP itself acknowledges that China’s success in high-speed rail was achieved by standing on the shoulders of giants. Indeed, its purpose from the beginning was to slay all other giants. The CCP has an explicit dual purpose: Its short-term goal is to use economic achievements to prove the legitimacy of its regime and to make economic and technological progress to maintain and excite nationalist sentiment and propaganda. But its long-term purpose is to prove that its communist system is superior to the capitalist system, so it unscrupulously steals technology and turns the power of the entire country to competing with capitalist free enterprise.

China’s tactics of promising market access in exchange for technology, coercing tech transfers, absorbing and improving foreign technology, having its own firms practice in the domestic market before advancing to the world, and dumping products globally to undercut competitors, have led Western companies to suffer immensely. Now some are beginning to reflect. Others, however, are drawn like a moth to a flame and are still willing to do business with the CCP for their immediate benefits. The CCP’s ambitions to acquire Western technology have never abated, and the Made in China 2025 program is the embodiment of this ambition.

In 2015, the Chinese government proposed the ten-year Made in China 2025 project, envisioning that by 2025, China would have transformed from a big manufacturing country to a manufacturing power, and that by 2035, the country’s manufacturing industry would surpass that of industrially advanced countries like Germany and Japan. By 2049, the CCP hopes, it will lead innovation in key manufacturing sectors as global leaders in key technologies and industries. Using lofty words, the CCP regime has raised the status of its manufacturing sector to “the foundation of the nation” and “the instrument for rejuvenating the country.”

A Manufacturing Superpower Built on Theft

How did China boost its manufacturing and innovative potential in such a short period of time? It used the same old tricks: First, it coerced companies to transfer their technologies, as in the case of high-speed rail. Many Western corporations are willing to provide technology in exchange for access to the Chinese market, training their future competitors at the same time. Second, China demands the companies form joint ventures with its own firms, and supports Chinese companies and universities in collaborating with high-tech companies, so they can acquire such technologies. Third, the regime encourages its domestic firms to make acquisitions of overseas high-tech companies, directly investing in startups with key technologies, and establishing overseas research-and-development (R&D) centers. Fourth, it induces leading foreign tech and scientific research institutes to set up R&D centers in China. Fifth, it uses targeted policies to bring in foreign technology experts.

Many startups in Silicon Valley need capital. China uses taxpayer money to invest in them in order to get its hands on new technologies, including rocket engines, sensors for autonomous navy ships, and 3D printers that manufacture flexible screens that could be used in fighter-plane cockpits. [42] Ken Wilcox, chairman emeritus of Silicon Valley Bank, said in 2017 that within a six-month period, he was approached by three different Chinese state-owned enterprises about acting as their agent to buy technology on their behalf. Though he declined, he said: “In all three cases, they said they had a mandate from Beijing, and they had no idea what they wanted to buy. It was just any and all tech.” [43]

In November 2018, the U.S. trade representative published the findings of a Section 301 investigation. The report says that Danhua Capital (currently Digital Horizon Capital) uses China’s venture capital to help the Chinese government gain top technologies and intellectual property in the United States. [44]

The above report by the U.S. government is open for the public to see. The killer weapon that China uses to realize its technological leap forward is the blatant theft of Western technology. China’s aptitude for industrial espionage far exceeds the scope of commercial spies in the past. In order to steal technology and secrets from the West, the regime mobilizes all available personnel and tactics — including espionage, hackers, international students, visiting scholars, Chinese and Taiwanese immigrants working in Western companies, and Westerners lured by monetary interests.

The CCP has always coveted the U.S. F-35 stealth fighter jet. A Canadian permanent citizen, Su Bin from China, was sentenced to five years in prison for stealing plans for the F-35 and other aircraft in 2016. Su worked with two hackers from the Chinese military to penetrate the computer systems of the manufacturer Lockheed Martin and steal the trade secrets. Investigators found that Su’s group had also stolen information about Lockheed’s F-22 stealth fighter and Boeing’s C-17 strategic transport aircraft, as well as 630,000 files from Boeing’s system, totaling some 65 gigabytes of data. [45] The PLA’s own J-20 stealth fighter exhibited in recent years is now very similar to the American F-22, and the smaller Chinese FC-31 is an imitation of the F-35.

Dr. David Smith, an expert on metamaterials at Duke University, invented a kind of “invisibility cloak” with the potential to one day protect U.S. forces. The U.S. military invested millions in support of his research. In 2006, Chinese student Liu Ruopeng came to the United States with the express purpose of studying at Smith’s lab, becoming the scientist’s protégé. An FBI counterintelligence official believes Liu had a specific mission: to obtain Smith’s research. In 2007, Liu brought two former colleagues, traveling at the Chinese regime’s expense, to visit Smith’s lab, and they worked on the invisibility cloak for a period of time. Later, the equipment used to make the cloak was duplicated at Liu’s old lab in China. [46]

On December 20, 2018, the Department of Justice sued two Chinese citizens from the Chinese hacker organization APT 10, which has close ties with the CCP. According to the indictment, from 2006 to 2018, APT 10 carried out extensive hacking attacks, stealing massive amounts of information from more than forty-five organizations, including NASA and the Department of Energy. The information stolen involves medicines, biotechnology, finance, manufacturing, petroleum, and natural gas. FBI Director Christopher Wray remarked: “China’s goal, simply put, is to replace the U.S. as the world’s leading superpower, and they’re using illegal methods to get there. They’re using an expanding set of non-traditional and illegal methods.” [47]

China’s theft of technology and patents is hard to combat and prevent. Kathleen Puckett, a former U.S. counterintelligence officer in San Francisco, said that the Chinese “put all their efforts into espionage, and get everything for free.” [48]

China moralized, rationalized, normalized, and militarized its stealing spree. It launched a “war against everyone” to loot advanced technology from the West, using patriotism, racial sentiments, money, and prestige. Such appalling conduct is unprecedented historically.

Some have defended China’s activities by arguing that the theft can’t amount to all that much, since by stealing a bit here and there, Chinese firms don’t get the full picture of how technology is deployed and scaled. But it’s very dangerous to look at Chinese industrial espionage this way. Espionage in the electronic age is completely different from that in decades past, in which spies would take a few photos. China steals entire databases of technologies research, and in many cases, scoops up not only the technology, but also the experts. With the power of the world factory that China has developed for decades and the R&D potential it has accumulated, the regime is truly able and willing to build a manufacturing superpower based on theft — and it is on course to do so.

The Thousand Talents Program: Espionage and Talent Attraction

From when China opened up in the 1970s until now, millions of Chinese students have studied overseas and have achieved great things. China seeks to recruit and use these talented individuals, invested in and trained by the West, to directly bring back to China the technology and economic information they’ve acquired. This aids the CCP’s ambitions in gaining global supremacy. Since 2008, multiple departments in China have initiated the Thousand Talents Program. On the surface, it’s about recruiting top Chinese talent overseas to return to China for full- or short-term positions. But the real goal behind the program is for state industry to get its hands on new technology and intellectual property from the West.

The FBI released a declassified document about these Chinese talent programs in September 2015. It concludes that recruiting target individuals can allow China to profit in three ways: gaining access to research and expertise in cutting-edge technology, benefiting from years of scientific research conducted in the United States and supported by U.S. government grants and private funding, and severely impacting the U.S. economy.[49]

The National Institutes of Health released a report on the Chinese talent programs on December 13, 2018, noting that foreign nationals had transferred U.S. intellectual property to their native countries while on the U.S. government payroll. Their actions have unfairly impacted all U.S. academic institutions.[50] M. Roy Wilson, one of the authors of the report and co-chair of the NIH Advisory Committee, said that a key qualification of becoming part of the Thousand Talents Program is having access to valuable intellectual property. He said that the problem was significant, not random, and that the severity of the intellectual property losses was impossible to ignore.[51]

Peter Harrell, adjunct senior fellow in the energy, economics, and security program at the Center for a New American Security, said: “China is pursuing a whole-of-society approach to its technological capabilities. That includes purchasing innovative companies through overseas investments, requiring Western companies to transfer cutting-edge technologies to China as a condition of market access, providing vast state resources to finance domestic technological development, financing training for top Chinese students and researchers overseas, and paying a hefty premium to attract talent back to China.”[52]

The Thousand Talents Program includes as its targets almost all Chinese students who have come to the United States since the 1980s and who find themselves with access to useful information for the regime’s industrial, technological, and economic development — potentially tens of thousands of individuals. The CCP is mobilizing the capacity of the entire country and population to conduct unrestricted warfare in its recruitment of talent and intellectual properties.

A Sinister, Total National System

In addition to outright stealing, China’s state support and subsidies are also an important means for the CCP to accomplish its ambitions. State support means that the regime can use huge sums of money to support key industries. Effectively, this is about using China’s national power to exert pressure on private businesses in the West. This poses an enormous, unique challenge to countries where leaders are democratically elected and leave business decisions to businesses themselves. It can be said that Western companies have lost before the game has even begun. China’s subsidies — ultimately taken out of the pocket of the unconsenting taxpayer — mean that Chinese manufacturers can ignore the real costs, making them unstoppable predators in international markets.

The solar cell industry is a classic example of the Chinese regime’s subsidies. Ten years ago, there were no Chinese companies among the top ten solar-cell manufacturers, but now there are six from China, including the top two. The green energy industry was heavily promoted during President Obama’s first term, but before long, dozens of solar-panel makers were filing for bankruptcy or had to cut back their businesses in the face of unrelenting competition from China, which undermined the enthusiasm for clean energy at the time.[53] The damage was caused by China’s dumping products on the world market, which was enabled by the regime’s subsidies for its domestic solar industry.

In Western countries, states also fund key projects, including those on the cutting edge of technological development. The prototype of the internet, for instance, was first developed by the U.S. Department of Defense. However, in the West, government participation at the national level is limited. Once a technology is commercialized, private companies are free to act as they will. For example, NASA disseminated its advanced research results to industry through its Technology Transfer Program. Many of its software projects simply put their source code on the Web as open source. In contrast, the CCP directly uses the power of the state to commercialize high-tech, which is equivalent to using a “China Inc.” to compete against individual Western firms.

The Made in China 2025 project is, of course, inseparable from state subsidies and state industrial planning. If the CCP continues on its current track, the story of the solar panels will play out again in other industries, and Chinese products will become global job-killers. Through unrestricted economic and technological warfare, the CCP has successfully led many Western companies, including multinational corporations, into a trap. They handed over capital and advanced technology, but weren’t able to compete fairly in the Chinese market, and instead helped create their own state-backed competitors. The CCP used them as pawns to achieve its ambitions.

d. The CCP Uses the Masses for Espionage

The CCP regards information as simply another weapon in its arsenal. Regardless of the field, whether pertaining to the state, private enterprise, or individual endeavors, all forms of information are seen as fair game for the fulfillment of the regime’s strategic ambitions.

The CCP also has used legislation to force all Chinese people into participating in its unrestricted warfare. The National Intelligence Law of the People’s Republic of China, passed by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, states that “national intelligence agencies may require relevant agencies, organizations, and citizens to provide necessary support, assistance and cooperation.” [54] This means that any Chinese citizen can be coerced by the CCP to collect intelligence and become a spy. This kind of intelligence collection has never been seen before.

On December 12, 2018, the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee held a hearing about the CCP’s “non-traditional espionage activities.” Bill Priestap, deputy director of the FBI counterintelligence department, revealed the CCP’s approach to these activities: The Party sometimes plays by the rules when it’s to its advantage, while at other times, it bends and breaks the rules to achieve its goals. When possible, the Party also tries to rewrite the rules and reshape the world according to its own requirements.

John Demers, assistant attorney general of the National Security Division of the U.S. Department of Justice, testified that the CCP’s Made in China 2025 plan—which, on the surface, aims at improving innovation—is essentially a handbook for what to steal. He disclosed that from 2011 to 2018, more than 90 percent of the cases of economic espionage allegedly involving or benefiting a country were related to China (that is, the CCP), and that more than two-thirds of the trade-secret theft cases are connected to China (again, meaning the CCP). [55]

In the previous section, we discussed the CCP’s hacking of companies and inducing personnel to steal Western intellectual property. In fact, the CCP’s espionage is far from limited to intellectual property.

The CCP controls all major private companies in China and uses these nominal “private enterprises” for international intelligence gathering. Ted Cruz, the U.S. senator from Texas, said Huawei was a “Communist Party spy agency thinly veiled as a telecom company.” “Its surveillance networks span the globe and its clients are rogue regimes such as Iran, Syria, North Korea, and Cuba. The arrest of Huawei’s CFO Wanzhou Meng in Canada is both an opportunity and a challenge,” he wrote. [56]

According to a survey released in January 2018 by the French newspaper Le Monde, confidential information from the African Union (AU) headquarters in Ethiopia was sent to Shanghai every night for five years. The CCP was accused of being behind the hack. A report released by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute on July 13 revealed that Huawei is a provider of some network infrastructure technology at the AU headquarters building. [57]

André Ken Jakobsson, a postdoctoral fellow at the Center for Military Studies in Copenhagen, said: “What is worrying is that the CCP can get very critical and sensitive information. They can enter a system that controls our entire society. Everything will be connected to the 5G network in the future. We are worried that the country that provides such equipment — China [the CCP] — controls the switch.”[58]

In China, the CCP uses cameras, computer networks, and artificial intelligence equipped with face-recognition technology to create a ubiquitous monitoring network. If it is not stopped, the situation prevailing in China today is likely to spread around the world tomorrow.

At the same time, the CCP has used hackers on a large scale. As early as 1999, the CCP’s hackers disguised themselves as a Falun Gong overseas website and attacked the U.S. Department of Transportation. The department contacted the Falun Gong website to investigate the attacks. It was soon found that the attack could be traced back to a hacker from an intelligence agency run by the Party. [59]

In June 2015, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management was attacked by CCP hackers, who stole the personnel data and security information of more than 21.5 million Americans. Those affected included 19.7 million government employees and 1.8 million of their family members.

In November 2018, Marriott International announced that private information, including passports, of up to 500 million guests had been stolen by hackers, dating back to 2014. U.S. Secretary of State Michael Pompeo confirmed on December 12 that the hacking was carried out by the CCP. Marriott is the largest hotel supplier to the U.S. government and military.

e. Unrestricted Warfare Takes Many Forms

The CCP utilizes many other methods of unrestricted warfare. A few major examples are listed below.

Diplomatic Unrestricted Warfare

The CCP’s typical diplomatic method is to divide and conquer. When the world criticizes the CCP for its human rights abuses, the CCP invites each country to discuss human rights separately. While many countries have discussed human rights issues with the CCP in private, it has had no restraining effect on the Party, which simply delays and argues with the various countries, never making any substantial changes. Moreover, it has virtually disintegrated the international norms that safeguard human rights.

The CCP used this method to escape condemnation and sanctions even before it joined the World Trade Organization. Once China was admitted to the organization, it immediately began using economic means to tempt various countries, and again used divide-and-conquer to achieve large-scale breakthroughs in various areas.

The CCP also uses rogue tactics of hostage diplomacy to arrest and threaten both Chinese and non-Chinese until its demands are met. Before the CCP was granted Permanent Normal Trade Relations status by the United States, it arrested dissidents before almost every negotiation session, then used the release of the dissidents as a means to achieve its goals during the negotiations. The Communist Party disregards the rights and lives of its own people, but it knows that Western societies care about issues like basic human rights. Therefore, it uses its own citizens as hostages, puts a knife to the neck of the Chinese people, and uses them to threaten the enemy — the United States. This truly reflects the CCP’s practice of unrestricted warfare.

With the rapid development of the economy, the CCP has become bolder, and foreign hostages have become diplomatic pawns. The aforementioned Su Bin was accused by the United States of hacking into a U.S. military database in 2014. Subsequently, the Canadian couple Kevin and Julia Garratt were arrested by the CCP and accused of espionage.

After the arrest of Huawei’s vice president and chief financial officer, Meng Wanzhou, in Vancouver on December 1, 2018, a series of protests were triggered by the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The CCP’s consulate in Canada mobilized a large number of pro-communist overseas Chinese to protest. In addition, the CCP arrested three Canadian citizens in retaliation.[60] This was both to put direct pressure on Canada and to drive a wedge between Canada and the United States.

Lawlessness is the CCP’s modus operandi. Any foreigner in China may become a hostage at any time and be used as a bargaining chip for political, economic, and diplomatic purposes. Additionally, when the CCP threatens overseas Chinese, especially dissidents, it often uses their relatives in China as hostages.

Unrestricted Military Warfare

The CCP has developed asymmetric weapons, such as anti-ship missiles and anti-aircraft carrier missiles. In terms of conventional weapons, the CCP has attempted to surpass the technological supremacy of the United States by having a larger quantity of matériel targeting those prize assets. The CCP has grown economically and technically, giving it greater operational space to implement cyberwarfare, outer-space warfare, and other unconventional high-tech attack vectors against the United States, as addressed in the last section.

The PLA publicly declares that the conduct of the kind of war it wishes for would “appear in a manner that is cross-national, cross-domain, and utilizes any means necessary.” In the PLA’s ideal war, “tangible national boundaries, intangible cyberspace, international law, national law, codes of conduct, and ethics are not binding on [PLA forces]. … They don’t take responsibility for anyone, and are not restricted by any rules. Anyone can be a target, and any means can be used.” The authors of Unrestricted Warfare, both Chinese colonels, declare to their readers: “Have [you] considered combining the battlefield with the non-battlefield, war with non-war, military with non-military — specifically, combining stealth aircraft, cruise missiles and network killers, nuclear war, financial warfare, and terrorist attacks? Or, simply put, Schwarzkopf [commander-in-chief of U.S. Central Command] + Soros [leftist billionaire] + Morris [creator of the Morris Worm computer virus] + bin Laden? This is our true card.” [61]

Unrestricted Financial Warfare

The CCP has begun promoting its own financial payment system and use of the renminbi through “economic assistance” and private enterprises, in an attempt to build a global infrastructure. It intends to use the renminbi to replace the U.S. dollar’s dominance in the field of international currency circulation. According to the CCP’s unrestricted financial-warfare strategy, the regime can achieve its goals simply by printing massive amounts of money, thus destroying the financial system when necessary. CCP think tanks have advocated the weaponization of foreign exchange reserves.

Unrestricted Internet Warfare

Through the efforts of Huawei and ZTE to seize the 5G technology market, the CCP is striving to gain a dominant position in 5G standards, and wants to play a leading global role in the new technology. The former head of the Federal Reserve of Dallas said, “If China were to win the race, they would establish the protocols for the internet, just as English replaced German as the language of science and became the language of all crucial activity on a global scale.”[62]

The internet took shape in a world in which information flows were entirely different from those of the traditional world, and the online world can in turn constrain and influence our real world. At present, the internet faces a new round of evolution, with 5G technology at its core. With the combination of 5G and artificial intelligence, the internet is moving toward “the internet of things,” or digitization of the entire world. The internet’s control over the physical world is dramatically expanding, and the rules of the entire world are being rewritten. If the CCP dominates 5G, it will be able to act unimpeded.

In addition, there is a huge amount of information flowing on the internet. Once the CCP’s external propaganda operations are successfully integrated with a China-controlled 5G, its soft-brainwashing efforts will greatly exceed the current scale and impact.

Unrestricted Narcotics Warfare

At a U.S. cabinet meeting held on August 16, 2018, President Trump said that the proliferation of opioids based on fentanyl from China is “almost a war.”[63] In 2017, there were more than seventy thousand cases of drug overdose in the United States, of which more than 40 percent were related to synthetic opioids (mainly fentanyl and its analogues). These drugs are primarily produced in China and then enter the United States through the U.S. postal service or are smuggled into Mexico and then enter the United States through the U.S. Southwest border.[64]

Markos Kounalakis, a senior researcher at the Central European University and a visiting scholar at the Hoover Institution of Stanford University, in November 2017 wrote of fentanyl: “It is, ultimately, a chemical. And it’s being used as a weapon in China’s 21st Century Opium War against America.” He said that fentanyl has killed thousands of Americans and cited it as an example of CCP strategy: The CCP uses the real value of this chemical as a “profitable opiate export that also destroys American communities and roils the U.S. political landscape.” [65]

Unrestricted Population Warfare

In September 2018, a Chinese family traveling in Sweden made a scene in a Swedish hotel by falsely claiming they were mistreated by the police. After exaggeration by the Chinese Embassy and media, Chinese people began boycotting IKEA and H&M.[66] The Swedish TV station SVT aired a sarcastic program about the incident, which further exacerbated the situation. Tens of thousands of Chinese internet users flooded the websites of the Swedish Embassy, the TV host Jesper Rönndahl, and the TV station’s Facebook page.[67]

After sixty years of destruction of traditional culture and its replacement with Communist Party culture, the CCP is indeed able to coerce billions of Chinese people and turn them into a mass army, merely by waving the flag of nationalism. Before the ninetieth anniversary of the People’s Liberation Army in 2017, the CCP came up with software that can add PLA uniforms to an individual in an uploaded image. In just several days, the app received over one billion visits.

The CCP is able to use nationalism to control the public because people don’t know the Party’s true history. In particular, people don’t understand the CCP’s history of killing. Thus, generations of Chinese people who grew up in the Party culture carry the Party culture with them wherever they go. When they travel abroad to make a living, they export Party culture overseas and become part of the regime’s mass overseas army.

The CCP has already successfully created a generation of people who will obey its orders without the need to be coerced or monitored. This has strengthened the CCP’s ability to control this army in the free world and use it for subversion. If a war broke out, this sort of mass population warfare could have dire consequences.

Unrestricted Cultural Warfare

The CCP has been peddling Party Culture and its values under the banner of Chinese traditional culture and customs for many years. People all over the world have a strong interest in China’s long history and rich culture, yet their understanding is very limited. The CCP knows this well and takes full advantage of it. By adopting some of the superficial forms of traditional culture, the CCP has disguised itself as the guardian and true representative of Chinese culture, making it extremely difficult for people in other countries to see through the deceit.

Other Forms of Unrestricted Warfare

The Chinese communist regime declared Asymmetrical Hybrid Warfare against the United States and its Western allies by launching its nation-state Program 863 in 1986. The ultimate goal of this warfare is to surpass the United States on the economic and military fronts, and thus replace the United States in its role as the world leader. It is a war based on deceit and complete disregard for any rules, and the strategies behind it are part of its unrestricted warfare program.[68]

During the June 4, 1989, movement, the CCP ordered soldiers and police to disguise themselves as Beijing civilians and create riots, so the military could use them as an excuse for its mass killing, which it called “suppressing riots.” In the persecution of Falun Gong, the CCP fabricated the “self-immolation” incident to justify the ensuing escalation of the persecution. During Hong Kong’s Occupy Central With Love and Peace movement, the CCP transported people from Shenzhen to incite violence in Hong Kong, effectively forcing the police to escalate toward violence.

In the eyes of the CCP, murder and assassination are commonplace methods, and in the future, the Party may well use the same methods — poisoning, assassination, explosions, the sabotage of power grids or transportation facilities, and so on — to create chaos and conflict in the West.

The core of unrestricted warfare is about destroying the morality of mankind, and mobilizing evil people to destroy mankind step by step. The CCP is highly skilled at tempting people to go against morality and their own conscience, and those who do so often end up either passive in the face of the CCP’s abuses, or active participants. Therefore, for influential figures in the political, economic, military, media, cultural, technological, educational, and other fields, the CCP attempts all means to discover their human weaknesses — whether vested interests or desires — and uses them to make people willingly collaborate with the Party. When this doesn’t work, the CCP might use threats and intimidation to exploit their fears or mistakes, effectively blackmailing them into assisting the Party. In some cases, the CCP has even provided transplant organs obtained by killing to buy off influential figures in need of a transplant.

The resources the CCP is able to bring to bear to infiltrate other countries defy one’s imagination, and the facts uncovered at present are only the tip of the iceberg. People in all walks of life, especially in politics and business, have become the CCP’s tools in its unrestricted warfare campaign, and more evidence will surface over time showing how many have fallen into this trap. Almost all countries in the world have begun to feel the CCP’s global ambitions and its evil, unrestricted means. They’ve also seen the destructive impact of the CCP’s agents at critical moments.

4. The ‘China Model’ and Its Destructive Impact

In the past decade or so, Communist Party mouthpieces, as well as some Western scholars and journalists, have vigorously touted the concept of a “Chinese model” or similar terms, such as the “Chinese way,” the “China miracle,” or the “Beijing consensus.” The so-called China model generally refers to the CCP’s combination of political totalitarianism and crony capitalism to achieve “social stability” and rapid economic development. In fact, the essence of the “China model” is the “CCP model” — a political abomination that has never been seen before in human history.

Propaganda aimed at supporting the legitimacy of the communist “Chinese path” generally touts the Party’s supposed “success” in four categories: economic development, social stability, public opinion (when civilians act as submissive subjects), and international recognition.

However, all four of these arguments are untenable for those who can look at things with clear eyes. High economic growth rates cannot hide the twisted, often evil, form of economic development that the CCP takes.

The regime’s so-called economic miracle is actually the result of the energy released by the Chinese people after decades of suppression, and the partial return to normal market conditions during reform and opening up. Such growth has been achieved by trampling on human rights, stealing intellectual property, overexploiting natural resources, and destroying the natural environment. Such growth is neither ethical nor sustainable. There are numerous structural problems in the Chinese economy, none of which can be solved under the existing political system. When these problems get to the critical point, they’ll bring disasters to the Chinese people and the rest of the world.

All of the CCP’s arguments are worthless, but those about social stability and public opinion are particularly egregious. The Chinese communist regime has control over all armed forces in China and maintains stability with an iron fist and surveillance. The Party can thus indeed achieve social “stability” for a long time. The CCP monopolizes all media inside China and has nipped opposing voices in the bud. In today’s world, when morality in general has fallen down, it is not difficult to find useful idiots in the international community and have them act as friends of China and sing the praises of the CCP. It is obvious that the so-called achievements of the CCP’s China model cannot conceal the heinous crimes committed by the regime.

The CCP’s nature means that it will always set itself against traditional culture, orthodox morality, and universal values. Today’s CCP is the world’s axis of evil and the enemy of mankind. If the world cannot wake up and take action against the regime, the failure will bring disaster to the world for the following reasons.

China has a vast territory and a large population. It has become the world’s second-largest economy and, from 2010, the second-largest military power with nuclear weapons. No tyrannical force historically or today has ever had such a huge economic and military power as the CCP. The CCP absorbed the most sinister and deformed elements of modern totalitarian regimes and ancient Chinese tactics as its ideology for control. Therefore, the CCP never plays by the rules, and its strategy is both deep and ruthless, often beyond the imagination and understanding of leaders and strategists in other countries. By hijacking 1.3 billion Chinese people, the CCP has presented a huge and greatly coveted market to the world, attracting foreign capital, businessmen, and politicians. It has them turn a blind eye to the CCP’s human rights abuses and evil, and in some cases, even gets them to cooperate with the CCP in its crimes.

The CCP has killed eighty million Chinese people. In recent times, it has committed countless crimes against Falun Gong practitioners, underground Christians, Tibetans, Uyghurs, dissidents, and those at the bottom of society. Once the regime collapses, it will be brought to justice and punished for all its crimes. To avoid this fate by any means necessary, the CCP chooses to go down the evil road of totalitarianism and increased persecution, refusing to step off the world stage. Like a repeat offender, the CCP is anxious to escape and will not hesitate to commit more horrific crimes to protect itself.

The Chinese Communist Party is the communist specter’s main agent in the human realm. Fated for elimination, the CCP’s existence has always been accompanied by a strong sense of crisis and fear. Driven by a sense of constant crisis, the CCP resorts to all means necessary at critical moments, taking extreme measures to keep going. Driven by this sense of crisis, the CCP regards the United States, whose role is to maintain international order, as its primary enemy, and has secretly built itself up in an attempt to replace the United States and dominate the world.

At the same time, the CCP has used a range of means to export the CCP’s model and the Communist Party’s ideology, poisoning the world. The Belt and Road (also known as One Belt, One Road) and similar projects have demonstrated the Party’s geopolitical ambitions. What is even more frightening is that the CCP is preparing for the final battle with the United States with dedication, determination, and nonstop effort.

All the CCP’s ambitions — which it pursues through soft power, hard power, and sharp power — are based on a total disregard for morality and are aimed at serving its larger ambition of destroying traditional morality and universal values. The CCP’s goal is to establish itself as an evil empire and world ruler. It aims to bring totalitarian oppression to the world — a global police state characterized by brainwashing, mind control, mass surveillance, the elimination of private ownership, official atheism, the elimination of religion and traditional culture, unrestrained carnal desires, corruption, and moral degeneration. Its aim is to drag the world into poverty and turmoil, turning men into beasts and sending mankind into an abyss of moral degradation. All this is the path arranged by the communist specter in its attempt to destroy mankind.

The CCP is a unique political regime, mechanism, and social phenomenon. Its purpose is to destroy the traditional cultures and universal values that God left for mankind. If the orthodox morality that has helped mankind survive for thousands of years is ever truly destroyed, the result will be the destruction of the entire human race. Therefore, in addition to its military, economic, scientific, and technological endeavors, the CCP is also bent on imposing its ideology of atheism and warped views of good and evil on other countries. The CCP is using a range of methods to corrupt political and media figures around the world in order to instill its Party culture into these countries. Its ultimate goal is to have these individuals influence mainstream society and help drag everyone down with the CCP. This is the true intention of the CCP’s worldwide promotion of its so-called China model.

5. Lessons Learned and the Way Out

a. The Policy of Appeasement Was a Grave Mistake

In March 2018, in an article titled “How the West Got China Wrong,” The Economist reflected on the policy that Western countries have adopted toward China—their gamble that China would head toward democracy and the market economy. It conceded that the West’s gamble has failed; China under the CCP isn’t a market economy and, on its present course, never will be one. On the contrary, the CCP treats business and trade as extensions of state power and controls them as such. It uses its monopoly on power to shape the global economy, uses money to manipulate trading partners, and punishes individuals and groups it does not agree with. [69]

Ambitious and eager to assert its global hegemony, the CCP poses a serious threat to the world. Sadly, to this day, many countries, governments, and political figures still wish to befriend the CCP, oblivious of the danger. The relationship is illustrated by a Chinese saying: “raising the tiger cub to endanger oneself in future.”

Without the aid of the developed Western countries and the support of so many multinational corporations, high-tech giants, and large financial institutions, the CCP could not have developed from a weak economy with a regime on the verge of collapse to an indomitable axis of evil over the short span of just a few decades. It has extended its influence and is now brazenly challenging the United States in regions and domains across the world.

Michael Pillsbury, a national security expert, has argued that the West all along has held unrealistic expectations of the CCP, such as believing that it would inevitably become more democratic, that it longed for an American-style capitalist society, that it would inevitably integrate into the international social order, that U.S.–China exchanges would bring about full cooperation, or that the hawkish elements in the CCP were weak, and so forth. Pillsbury strongly urged the U.S. government to quickly face the reality of the situation and adopt counter-measures against the CCP — or else the CCP would win. [70]

Former White House strategist Steve Bannon also warned: “The Chinese leadership had no intention ever of joining the rule-based international post-war liberal order. They had their own plan, and they executed that plan very rigorously.” [71] This plan is for the CCP to use state power to control the key global industries, boldly engage in geopolitical expansion, and achieve global hegemony in technology and finance while totally disregarding the prevailing global rules of conduct.

b. Why Did the West Get China Wrong?

The West got China wrong for many reasons: the communist specter’s complex arrangements mentioned earlier, the duplicity and chameleon-like nature of the CCP, and the difficulty that free societies have in differentiating China from the CCP. In addition, the West got China wrong because of its pursuit of short-term gains, whether by individuals, companies, or entire nations. This provided yet another opportunity for the CCP to exploit.

The morally corrupt CCP targets gaps in the morality of people in free societies, people whose pursuit of paltry short-term profits allows the CCP to infiltrate and corrupt the very foundations of these societies. If we examine in detail the policies adopted by the United States regarding the CCP, to a large extent, policies are based on considerations of short-term gain instead of the most fundamental, long-term interests of America — such as the spirit on which the country was founded.

Mankind’s glory and authority come from God and are determined by man’s moral level. The prosperity and strength bestowed on an ethnic group and nation also depend on their level of morality. Using ordinary means, man is simply incapable of negating the arrangements made by the specter. Following this logic, where the West has gone wrong becomes clear — whatever the human methods applied, ultimately they cannot succeed in rescuing people from the clutches of evil.

Many governments, large companies, and businessmen may, for a period of time, ostensibly obtain benefits from the CCP for the sacrifice of their moral principles. But in the end, they’ll lose more than they gain. Such ill-gained, superficial benefits are all poisonous. Only by not coveting immediate interests will one have a bright future.

The CCP is not a political party or regime in the normal sense. It does not represent the Chinese people. It represents the communist specter. To associate with the CCP is to associate with the devil. To be friendly with the CCP is to appease the devil, aid it, and play a role in pushing humanity toward destruction. Conversely, to push back against the CCP is to engage in the battle between good and evil. This is not a simple matter of countries fighting over national interests. It is a battle for the future of humanity.

c. What Is the Way Out?

Today, China and the world are at a crossroads. For the Chinese people, the Chinese Communist Party, which owes countless debts of blood, cannot be expected to make any real reforms. China will be better off only when free of the Communist Party. By eliminating the Communist Party, which is like a malignant tumor, China will thrive.

For people around the world, China is known as the land of an ancient civilization characterized by courtesy and righteousness. Free of the Communist Party, China will once again be a normal member of the civilized world — a nation whose human and natural resources, diverse ancient traditions, and cultural heritage will be part of the wealth of humanity.

Moving forward during times of great difficulties, more and more Chinese people are coming to realize the evil nature of CCP. With the publication of the Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party in November 2004, a growing number of people began to regain their moral courage and made the decision to separate themselves from the communist specter. More than 300 million Chinese have renounced the CCP and its affiliated organizations. If the free world can support the trend of renouncing the CCP and sever all ties with the specter, the CCP will not be able to continue to act as it does globally.

The seemingly indomitable Soviet Union dissolved overnight. Though the CCP is baring its fangs globally, its dissolution could occur just as rapidly once the world recognizes its evil nature and makes the righteous choice.

The rise of the CCP results mostly from moral corruption and from people’s eyes being blinded by the pursuit of vested interests. To escape this fate, we need to summon up our moral courage, revive traditional values, and have a firm belief in the Divine.

To defeat a specter like the CCP, it is never enough to simply depend on human power. An evil specter has greater power than man, and this is the underlying cause of the CCP’s continuous expansion. However, a specter can never rival the Divine. As long as humans can stand by the Divine and abide by divine will, humans will be blessed and endowed with great power.

The CCP is the enemy of all of mankind. To resist the CCP’s ambitions is, in effect, to save human civilization and the future. The CCP is fated for elimination; thus, rejecting the CCP means avoiding the fate of being eliminated together with it — and helping to save mankind itself.


In the long course of history, mankind has seen an abundance of splendor and glory, but it has also endured countless episodes of tragedy and disaster. Looking back, we find that moral rectitude ushers in clean governance, economic strength, cultural brilliance, and national prosperity; moral degeneracy portends the fall of nations and the extinction of entire civilizations.

Today, mankind has reached a zenith in material wealth, yet it faces unprecedented challenges caused by the havoc of communism. The ultimate goal of communism is not to establish a heaven on earth, but to destroy mankind. The nature of communism is that of an evil specter forged by hate, degeneracy, and other elemental forces in the universe. Out of hate, it slaughtered more than 100 million people, trampled several thousand years of exquisite civilization, and corrupted human morality.

The communist specter made arrangements for both the East and the West, adopting different strategies in different countries. In the East, it committed ruthless slaughter and forced people to believe in atheism. In the West, communism took an alternate route, infiltrating society and seducing people to abandon their faith and traditional moral values.

Using communist regimes and organizations, fellow travelers, accomplices, and other agents, communism rallied negative elements present in the human world to amass formidable power. With this power, it subverted and established control in all social spheres, including politics, economics, law, education, media, arts, and culture. Today’s mankind is in dire straits.

Viewing in hindsight the last two centuries of social development, the reasons for communism’s triumph are clear. When people indulge in the material pleasures brought by technological advancement and permit the spread of atheism, they reject divine mercy and turn themselves over to evil. Having in large part strayed from the traditions established by gods, much of humanity is easily deceived by communism and its myriad ideological permutations, such as socialism, liberalism, and progressivism.

Traditional culture is the guarantee for humans to maintain their morality and gain salvation in the last moments of the final epoch. But with traditional culture under attack and basic moral truths cast aside, the link between man and the divine has been severed. Man can no longer understand divine instruction, and evil reigns supreme, wreaking havoc in the human realm. When human morality falls below the basic standards required of human beings, gods must reluctantly abandon humankind. The devil then leads man into the abyss of damnation.

But having reached an extreme, the circumstances are bound to reverse. It is an eternal principle in the human realm that evil can never defeat righteousness. Communism’s momentary victory is a temporary phenomenon, brought about by the devil, which has intimidated people with its illusory might and treacherous temptations. Man, while imperfect, carries in his nature the kindness, virtue, and moral courage that have been nurtured and passed down for millennia. In this lies his hope.

Global events are developing at an incredible pace. Righteousness is in ascendance, and the world’s people are awakening.

In China, millions of people have peacefully resisted the Chinese Communist Party’s tyrannical rule by remaining steadfast in their faith and morality. Inspired by the editorial series Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party, more than 300 million Chinese have bravely renounced their ties with the CCP and its affiliated organizations through the act of “tui dang,” or “quitting the Party.” More and more individuals are making the heartfelt decision to free themselves from the shackles of communism. Thus, the disintegration of the Communist Party is already underway.

The end of the Communist Party is a matter of divine arrangement. Should China’s leaders take steps to dismantle the Party, they will be provided all the conditions for a clean transition. In the future, they stand to gain true authority — that which is granted by gods. Should they stubbornly refuse to make this break, they shall take the Party’s fate as their own, joining it in the calamities of its final downfall.

The world is experiencing a revival of traditional culture and morality in alignment with the universal values of truthfulness, compassion, and tolerance. At the fore of this renaissance is Shen Yun Performing Arts, which tours on five continents. Using the medium of classical Chinese dance, Shen Yun brings these values to audiences around the world.

The West has begun to recognize the communist infiltration and its subversion of traditional culture that has been taking place over the past century. The cleansing of communist elements and deviated modern culture has begun across many spheres, including law and governance, education, and diplomatic relations. Governments are becoming more vigilant against communist regimes and their enablers, greatly stemming communism’s influence on the global scene.

Communism is not an enemy that can be defeated by military force. To free the world from its grasp, we must start by purifying ourselves from the inside. Li Hongzhi, the founder of Falun Dafa, wrote in his article “Pacify the External by Cultivating the Internal”:

If people do not value virtue, the world will be in great chaos and out of control; everyone will become enemies of one another and live without happiness. Living without happiness, they will not fear death. Lao Zi said, “If the populace doesn’t fear death, what good will it do to threaten them with death?” This is a great, imminent danger. A peaceful world is what people hope for. If at this point an excessive number of laws and decrees are created to secure stability, it will end up having the opposite effect. In order to solve this problem, virtue has to be cultivated around the world — only this way can the problem be fundamentally resolved. If officials are unselfish, the state will not be corrupt. If the population values self-cultivation and the nurturing of virtues, and if both officials and civilians alike exercise self-restraint in their minds, the whole nation will be stable and supported by the people. Being solid and stable, the nation will naturally intimidate foreign enemies and peace will thus reign under heaven. This is the work of a sage.

The merciful Creator has always been watching over mankind. Disasters occur when man betrays the divine, and humanity can be saved only by returning to our divinely bestowed heritage. As long as we stay unmoved and see through the facades, maintain hearts of true compassion, follow the divine standards for being human, revive traditional values, and return to traditional culture, gods will deliver mankind from evil. The communist specter’s attempts to corrupt and destroy mankind will end in failure.

We should have gratitude for the divine. Gods have given us the means to break free from the snares of evil, laying down the path for us to return to tradition and the divine. Today, whether or not humanity will walk this path is the choice that faces us all.


[1] Zhao Kejin, “The Road of Peaceful Development: A Paradigmatic Breakthrough,” People.cn, Nov. 11, 2009, http://theory.people.com.cn/GB/10355796.html. [趙可金:〈和平發展道路:模式的突破〉,《人民網》] [In Chinese]

[2] PLA National Defense University et al., Silent Contest, 2013 June, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iUjkSJxJDcw&t=2190s. [國防大學等:《較量無聲》] [In Chinese]

[3] “Testimony of Arthur Waldron,” in “U.S.-China Relations: Status of Reforms in China,” Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, April 22, 2004, https://www.foreign.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/WaldronTestimony040422.pdf.

[4] Chris Giles, “China Poised to Pass US as World’s Leading Economic Power This Year,”

Financial Times, April 29, 2014 https://www.ft.com/content/d79ffff8-cfb7-11e3-9b2b-00144feabdc0.

[5] Chen Liangxian and Su Haoyun, “Overseas Ports in Vogue: How Do Chinese Enterprises Choose Strategic Locations?,” The Paper, August 17, 2017, https://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_175881. [陳良賢,蘇顥雲:〈海外港口熱:中企如何布局?〉,《澎湃新聞》] [In Chinese]

[6] Derek Watkins, K.K. Rebecca Lai, and Keith Bradsher, “The World, Built by China,” The New York Times, November 18, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/11/18/world/asia/world-built-by-china.html.

[7] Andrew Sheng, “A Civilizational Clash With China Comes Closer,” Asia Global Institute, The University of Hong Kong, January 16, 2018, http://www.asiaglobalinstitute.hku.hk/en/civilizational-clash-china-comes-closer/.

[8] Wu Xinbo, “Reflections on the Study of Neighborhood Diplomacy,” World Affairs, 2015 Issue #2, http://www.cas.fudan.edu.cn/picture/2328.pdf. [In Chinese] [吳心伯:〈對周邊外交研究的一些思考〉,《世界知識》]

[9] “Power and Influence: The Hard Edge of China’s Soft Power,” Australian Broadcasting Corporation, June 5, 2017, https://www.abc.net.au/4corners/power-and-influence-promo/8579844.

[10] “Sam Dastyari Resignation: How We Got Here,” Australian Broadcasting Corporation, December 11, 2017, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-12-12/sam-dastyari-resignation-how-did-we-get-here/9249380.

[11] “In Depth: How Much Influence Do China’s Donations Have on Australia? Should Political Donations Be Banned?,” SBS News, September 12, 2016, https://www.sbs.com.au/yourlanguage/mandarin/zh-hant/article/2016/09/12/shen-du-zhong-guo-juan-zeng-dui-ao-zhou-ying-xiang-you-duo-da-wai-guo-zheng-zhi?language=zh-hant. [深度:中國捐贈對澳洲影響有多大?外國政治獻金是否該禁?] [In Chinese]

[12] Mareike Ohlberg and Bertram Lang, “How to Counter China’s Global Propaganda Offensive,” The New York Times, September 21, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/22/opinion/how-to-counter-chinas-global-propaganda-offensive.html?_ga=2.63090735.1831033231.1544154630-97544283.1541907311.

[13] Jonathan Pearlman, “US Alarm over Aussie Port Deal With China Firm,” The Strait Times, November 19, 2015, https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/australianz/us-alarm-over-aussie-port-deal-with-china-firm.

[14] Tara Francis Chan, “Rejected Three Times Due to Fear of Beijing, Controversial Book on China’s Secret Influence Will Finally Be Published,” Business Insider, February 5, 2018, https://www.businessinsider.com/australian-book-on-chinas-influence-gets-publisher-2018-2.

[15] Christopher Walker and Jessica Ludwig, “From ‘Soft Power’ to ‘Sharp Power’: Rising Authoritarian Influence in the Democratic World,” in Sharp Power: Rising Authoritarian Influence (Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for Democracy, 2017), 20, https://www.ned.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Sharp-Power-Rising-Authoritarian-Influence-Full-Report.pdf.

[16] 2017 Foreign Policy White Paper, Australian Government, 2017, https://www.fpwhitepaper.gov.au/foreign-policy-white-paper/overview.

[17] Caitlyn Gribbin, “Malcolm Turnbull Declares He Will ‘Stand Up’ for Australia in Response to China’s Criticism,” Australian Broadcasting Corporation, December 8, 2017, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-12-09/malcolm-turnbull-says-he-will-stand-up-for-australia/9243274.

[18] Chen Yonglin, [陳用林] “Chen Yonglin: Australia Is Becoming China’s Backyard?,” The Epoch Times, September 2, 2016, http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/16/9/2/n8261061.htm. [陳用林:〈陳用林:澳大利亞正在淪為中國的後院〉,《大紀元新聞網》] [In Chinese]

[19] Clive Hamilton. Silent Invasion: China’s influence in Australia (Melbourne: Hardie Grant, 2018), Chapter 1.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Hamilton, Silent Invasion, Chapter 3.

[24] Lin Ping, “Disclosing China’s Sharp Power: Part X, New Zealand,” Radio Free Asia, September 25, 2018, https://www.rfa.org/mandarin/zhuanlan/zhuantixilie/zhongguochujiaoshenxiangshijie/jm-09252018162912.html. [林坪:〈揭祕中國銳實力(十)紐西蘭〉,自由亞洲電台] [In Chinese]

[25] Ibid.

[26] Ibid.

[27] Lin Tinghui, “The Dragon in Strange Waters: China’s Diplomatic Quagmire in the Pacific Islands,” Journal on International Relations Issue #30, July 2010, p. 58, https://diplomacy.nccu.edu.tw/download.php?filename=451_b9915791.pdf&dir=archive&title=File. [林廷輝:〈龍在陌生海域:中國對太平洋島國外交之困境〉,《國際關係學報》,第三十期(2010年7月)] [In Chinese]

[28] John Henderson and Benjamin Reilly, “Dragon in Paradise: China’s Rising Star in Oceania,” The National Interest, no. 72 (Summer 2003): 94–105.

[29] Ben Bohane, “The U.S. Is Losing the Pacific to China,” The Wall Street Journal, June 7, 2017, https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-u-s-is-losing-the-pacific-to-china-1496853380.

[30] Josh Rogin, “Inside China’s ‘Tantrum Diplomacy’ at APEC,” The Washington Post, November 20, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/josh-rogin/wp/2018/11/20/inside-chinas-tantrum-diplomacy-at-apec/.

[31] China’s Central Asia Problem, Report No. 244, International Crisis Group (February 27, 2013), https://www.crisisgroup.org/europe-central-asia/central-asia/china-s-central-asia-problem.

[32] Wu Jiao and Zhang Yunbi, “Xi Proposes a ‘New Silk Road’ With Central Asia,” China Daily, September 8, 2013, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/sunday/2013-09/08/content_16952160.htm.

[33] Raffaello Pantucci and Sarah Lain, “China’s Eurasian Pivot: The Silk Road Economic Belt,” Whitehall Papers 88, no. 1 (May 16, 2017), https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02681307.2016.1274603.

[34] “China’s Central Asia Problem,” International Crisis Group.

[35] “Kong Quan: China Supports Uzbekistan’s Efforts for National Security,” People.cn, http://world.people.com.cn/GB/8212/14450/46162/3395401.htm. [〈孔泉:中國支持烏茲別克斯坦為國家安全所做努力〉,人民網] [In Chinese]

[36] Benno Zogg, “Turkmenistan Reaches Its Limits with Economic and Security Challenges,” IPI Global Observatory, July 31, 2018, https://theglobalobservatory.org/2018/07/turkmenistan-limits-economic-security-challenges/.

[37] Jakub Jakóbowski and Mariusz Marszewski, “Crisis in Turkmenistan: A test for China’s Policy in the Region,” Center for Eastern Studies (OSW), August 31, 2018, https://www.osw.waw.pl/en/publikacje/osw-commentary/2018-08-31/crisis-turkmenistan-a-test-chinas-policy-region-0.

[38] Eiji Furukawa, “Belt and Road Debt Trap Spreads to Central Asia,” Nikkei Asian Review, August 29, 2018, https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Belt-and-Road/Belt-and-Road-debt-trap-spreads-to-Central-Asia.

[39] “Tajikistan: Chinese Company Gets Gold Mine in Return for Power Plant,” Eurasianet, April 11, 2018, https://eurasianet.org/tajikistan-chinese-company-gets-gold-mine-in-return-for-power-plant.

[40] Danny Anderson, “Risky Business: A Case Study of PRC Investment in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan,” The Jamestown Foundation, China Brief 18, no. 14 (August 10, 2018), https://jamestown.org/program/risky-business-a-case-study-of-prc-investment-in-tajikistan-and-kyrgyzstan/.

[41] Juan Pablo Cardenal and Heriberto Araújo, China’s Silent Army: The Pioneers, Traders, Fixers and Workers Who Are Remaking the World in Beijing’s Image (New York: Crown Publishing Group, 2013), Chapter 2.

[42] Lindsey Kennedy and Nathan Paul Southern, “China Created a New Terrorist Threat by Repressing Secessionist Fervor in Its Western Frontier,” Quartz, May 31, 2017, https://qz.com/993601/china-uyghur-terrorism/.

[43] Xu Jin et al., [徐進等] “Making ‘Strategic Pivots’ for China’s Border Security,” World Affairs 2014 Issue #15, pp. 14–23, http://cssn.cn/jjx/xk/jjx_lljjx/sjjjygjjjx/201411/W020141128513034121053.pdf. [徐進等:〈打造中國周邊安全的「戰略支點」國家〉,《世界知識》,2014年15期,頁14-23][In Chinese]

[44] Therese Delpech, Iran and the Bomb: The Abdication of International Responsibility (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), 49.

[45] Cardena and Araújo, China’s Silent Army, Epilogue.

[46] Seyed Reza Miraskari et al., “An Analysis of International Outsourcing in Iran-China Trade Relations,” Journal of Money and Economy 8, No 1 (Winter 2013): 110–139, http://jme.mbri.ac.ir/article-1-86-en.pdf.

[47] Scott Harold and Alireza Nader, China and Iran: Economic, Political, and Military Relations (Washington, D.C.: RAND Corporation, 2012), 7, https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/occasional_papers/2012/RAND_OP351.pdf.

[48] “The Commercial Foundation to Bypass the ‘Malacca Dilemma’: How to Ensure the Effective Operation of the China-Myanmar Oil and Gas Pipelines,” The First Finance Daily, July 22, 2013, https://www.yicai.com/news/2877768.html. [〈繞過「馬六甲困局」的商業基礎——如何保證中緬油氣管道有效運營〉,《第一財經日報》] [In Chinese]

[49] Li Chenyang, “China-Myanmar Relations since 1988,” in Harmony and Development: Asean-China Relations, eds. Lim Tin Seng and Lai Hongyi (Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2007), 54.

[50] Ibid.

[51] “China’s Myanmar Dilema,” Asia Report No.177 (Brussels: International Crisis Group , 2009), 1, https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/177-china-s-myanmar-dilemma.pdf.

[52] “After Two Years of Inactivity, the China-Myanmar Crude Oil Pipeline Is Finally Opened,” BBC Chinese, April 10, 2017, https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/simp/chinese-news-39559135. [〈閒置兩年後 中緬原油管道終於開通〉,《BBC中文網》] [In Chinese]

[53] Zhuang Beining and Che Hongliang, “China-Myanmar Signs the Framework Agreement for the Kyaukpyu Deep-water Port Project,” xinhuanet.com, November 8, 2018, http://www.xinhuanet.com/2018-11/08/c_1123686146.htm. [莊北甯,車宏亮:〈中緬簽署皎漂深水港專案框架協定〉,《新華網》] [In Chinese]

[54] Lu Cheng, “China-Myanmar Economic Corridor: An Emerging Approach to Myanmar’s Development,” Guangming Net, September 17, 2018, http://news.gmw.cn/2018-09/17/content_31210352.htm. [鹿鋮:〈中緬經濟走廊:緬甸發展的新興途徑〉,《光明網》] [In Chinese]

[55] Lin Ping, “Disclosing China’s Sharp Power,” Part XI, European Politics,” Radio Free Asia, https://www.rfa.org/mandarin/zhuanlan/zhuantixilie/zhongguochujiaoshenxiangshijie/yl-11052018102634.html. [林坪:〈揭祕中國銳實力(十一)歐洲政界〉,《自由亞洲電台》] [In Chinese]

[56] Jason Horowitz and Liz Alderman, “Chastised by E.U., a Resentful Greece Embraces China’s Cash and Interests,” The New York Times, August 26, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/26/world/europe/greece-china-piraeus-alexis-tsipras.html.

[57] Ibid.

[58] Jan Velinger, “President’s Spokesman Lashes Out at Culture Minister for Meeting with Dalai Lama,” Radio Praha, October 18, 2016, https://www.radio.cz/en/section/curraffrs/presidents-spokesman-lashes-out-at-culture-minister-for-meeting-with-dalai-lama.

[59] Lin Ping, “Disclosing China’s Sharp Power (Part XI), European Politics,” Radio Free Asia, November 5, 2018, https://www.rfa.org/mandarin/zhuanlan/zhuantixilie/zhongguochujiaoshenxiangshijie/yl-11052018102634.html. [林坪:〈揭祕中國銳實力(十一)歐洲政界〉,《自由亞洲電台》] [In Chinese]

[60] “German Blue Book: China’s Non-Financial Direct Investment in Germany Has Grown Substantially,” sina.com.cn, July 9, 2017, http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/dgby/2018-07-09/doc-ihezpzwt8827910.shtml. [〈德國藍皮書:中國在德國非金融直接投資大幅增長〉,《觀察者網》] [In Chinese]

[61] Chinese Influence and American Interests: Promoting Constructive Vigilance (Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 2018), https://www.hoover.org/sites/default/files/research/docs/chineseinfluence_americaninterests_fullreport_web.pdf, 163.

[62] Philip Oltermann, “Germany’s ‘China City’: How Duisburg Became Xi Jinping’s Gateway to Europe,” The Guardian, August 1, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2018/aug/01/germanys-china-city-duisburg-became-xi-jinping-gateway-europe.

[63] “Chirac: A Man Who Loved China,” China Net, March 20, 2007, http://www.china.com.cn/international/txt/2007-03/20/content_18421202.htm. [〈希拉克:熱愛中國的人〉,《中國網》] [In Chinese]

[64] The True Jiang Zemin, Chapter 9, “The War of Greed (Part I),” The Epoch Times, http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/12/6/18/n3615092.htm. [聯合寫作組:《真實的江澤民》,〈第九章 貪戰(上)〉,《大紀元新聞網》] [In Chinese]

[65] Nick Timothy, “The Government Is Selling Our National Security to China,” Conservative Home, October 20, 2015, http://www.conservativehome.com/thecolumnists/2015/10/nick-timothy-the-government-is-selling-our-national-security-to-china.html.

[66] Holly Watt, “Hinkley Point: The ‘Dreadful Deal’ behind the World’s Most Expensive Power Plant,” The Guardian, December 21, 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/dec/21/hinkley-point-c-dreadful-deal-behind-worlds-most-expensive-power-plant.

[67] Lin Ping [林坪] “Disclosing China’s Sharp Power (Part XII) Economic Infiltration in Europe,” Radio Free Asia, November 12, 2018, https://www.rfa.org/mandarin/zhuanlan/zhuantixilie/zhongguochujiaoshenxiangshijie/yl-11082018122750.html; “Disclosing China’s Sharp Power (Part XIII) The Encroachment of Academic Freedom and Freedom of Speech in Europe,” Radio Free Asia, November 12, 2018, https://www.rfa.org/mandarin/zhuanlan/zhuantixilie/zhongguochujiaoshenxiangshijie/MCIEU-11122018165706.html. [林坪:〈揭祕中國銳實力(十二)在歐洲的經濟滲透〉,《自由亞洲電台》] [〈揭祕中國銳實力(十三)歐洲學術、言論自由〉,《自由亞洲電台》] [In Chinese]

[68] Jack Hazlewood, “China Spends Big on Propaganda in Britain … but Returns Are Low,” Hong Kong Free Press, April 3, 2016, https://www.hongkongfp.com/2016/04/03/china-spends-big-on-propaganda-in-britain-but-returns-are-low/.

[69] Thorsten Benner et al., “Authoritarian Advance: Responding to China’s Growing Political Influence in Europe,” Global Public Policy Institute (GPPI), February 2018, https://www.gppi.net/media/Benner_MERICS_2018_Authoritarian_Advance.pdf.

[70] Christophe Cornevin and Jean Chichizola, “The Revelations of Le Figaro on the Chinese Spy Program That Targets France” [“Les révélations du Figaro sur le programme d’espionnage chinois qui vise la France”], Le Figaro, October 22, 2018, http://www.lefigaro.fr/actualite-france/2018/10/22/01016-20181022ARTFIG00246-les-revelations-du-figaro-sur-le-programme-d-espionnage-chinois-qui-vise-la-france.php. [In French]

[71] “German Spy Agency Warns of Chinese LinkedIn Espionage,” BBC News, December 10, 2017, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-42304297.

[72] Serge Michel and Michel Beuret, China Safari: On the Trail of Beijing’s Expansion in Africa (New York: Nation Books, 2010), 162.

[73] Reuben Brigety, “A Post-American Africa,” Foreign Affairs, August 28, 2018, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/africa/2018-08-28/post-american-africa.

[74] “Not as Bad as They Say” The Economist, October 1, 2011, https://www.economist.com/middle-east-and-africa/2011/10/01/not-as-bad-as-they-say.

[75] Joseph Hammond, “Sudan: China’s Original Foothold in Africa,” The Diplomat, June 14, 2017, https://thediplomat.com/2017/06/sudan-chinas-original-foothold-in-africa/.

[76] Zeng Yong, “A Strategic Analysis of China’s Dealing with the Darfur Crisis,” Arab World Studies, November 2012 Issue #6, http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/_upload/article/23/47/8ee05ca2405488f615e514184f73/077159aa-8c97-41b8-bcc3-95c22c3ba732.pdf. [曾勇,〈中國處理達爾富爾危機的戰略分析〉,《阿拉伯世界研究》] [In Chinese]

[77] “Beijing Shows Hospitality to the Wanted Sudanese President Bashir,” Radio France Internationale (RFI), June 29, 2011, http://cn.rfi.fr/中國/20110629-北京盛情款待遭通緝的蘇丹總統巴希爾. [〈北京盛情款待遭通緝的蘇丹總統巴希爾〉,《法廣》] [In Chinese]

[78] According to “China’s Path of Peaceful Development” by the Information Office of the State Council, as of 2005, China had waived the debts of forty-four developing countries, totalling about 16.6 billion yuan. http://www.scio.gov.cn/zfbps/ndhf/2005/Document/307900/307900.htm. [In Chinese]

[79] Pan Xiaotao, “Chinese, Get Ready to Give Out More Money,” Apple Daily, August 31, 2018, https://hk.news.appledaily.com/local/daily/article/20180831/20488504. [潘小濤:〈中國人,請準備再大撒幣〉,《蘋果日報》] [In Chinese]

[80] “Ministry of Commerce: 97 Percent of Products in 33 Least-Developed Countries in Africa Enjoy Zero Tariffs,” China News, August 28, 2018, http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2018/08-28/8612256.shtml. [〈商務部:非洲33個最不發達國家97%的產品享受零關稅〉,《中新網》] [In Chinese]

[81] Jia Ao, “China Gives Africa Big Bucks Again and America Gets Alert,” Radio Free Asia, September 3, 2018, https://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/junshiwaijiao/hc-09032018110327.html. [家傲:〈中國再向非洲大撒幣 美國警覺〉,《自由亞洲電台》] [In Chinese]

[82] Quan Ye, “A Dialogue With Wang Wen: From the Theory of Spending Money to the Real Problem Behind the Misconstrued New Colonialism,” Duowei News, September 2, 2018, http://news.dwnews.com/china/news/2018-09-02/60081911_all.html. [泉野:〈對話王文:從撒錢論到「新殖民主義」誤區背後的真問題〉,《多維》] [In Chinese]

[83] Cai Linzhe, “Ethiopia Is Learning the ‘Chinese Model,’” Phoenix Weekly, May 15, 2013, http://www.ifengweekly.com/detil.php?id=403. [蔡臨哲:〈埃塞俄比亞學習「中國模式」〉,《鳳凰週刊》] [In Chinese]

[84] Andrew Harding, “Correspondence from Our Reporters: ‘A New China’ in Africa,” BBC Chinese, July 27, 2015, https://www.bbc.com/ukchina/simp/fooc/2015/07/150727_fooc_ethiopia_development. [安德魯‧哈丁:〈記者來鴻:非洲出了個「新中國」〉,《BBC中文網》] [In Chinese]

[85] Si Yang, “To Win the Right to Speak and Export the ‘Chinese Model,’ China Resorts to Different Means in Europe-America and Asia-Africa,” Voice of America, December 7, 2018, https://www.voachinese.com/a/4420434.html. [斯洋:〈爭奪話語權,輸出中國模式,中國影響歐美和亞非方式大不同〉,《美國之音》] [In Chinese]

[86] Ted Piccone, “The Geopolitics of China’s Rise in Latin America,” Order From Chaos: Foreign Policy in a Troubled World, November 2016, 4 and 9, https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/the-geopolitics-of-chinas-rise-in-latin-america_ted-piccone.pdf.

[87] Alfonso Serrano, “China Fills Trump’s Empty Seat at Latin America Summit,” The New York Times, April 17, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/13/opinion/china-trump-pence-summit-lima-latin-america.html.

[88] Translated from Chinese version of the paper by Jorge Blázquez-Lidoy, Javier Rodríguez, Javier Santiso, “Angel o demonio? Los efectos del comercio chino en los países de América Latina” [Angel or Demon? The Effects of Chinese Trade in Latin American Countries], https://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/11135/090017043_es.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y [in Spanish].

[89] Jordan Wilson, China’s Military Agreements with Argentina: A Potential New Phase in China-Latin America Defense Relations, U.S-China Economic and Security Review Commission Staff Research Report, November 5, 2015, https://www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/Research/China%27s%20Military%20Agreements%20with%20Argentina.pdf.

[90] Jin Yusen, “The CCP’s Dollar Diplomacy May Be the Last Straw,” watchinese.com, July 5, 2017, https://www.watchinese.com/article/2017/23053. [金雨森:〈中共金錢外交恐成為最後一根稻草〉,《看雜誌》] [In Chinese]

[91] Ibid.

[92] “The CCP’s Huge Amount of Financial Aid to El Salvador Causes Anxiety for America,” NTD Television, August 22, 2018, http://www.ntdtv.com/xtr/gb/2018/08/23/a1388573.html. [〈中共巨額金援搶薩爾瓦多 引美國憂慮〉,新唐人電視台] [In Chinese]

[93] Huang Xiaoxiao, “Number of Confucius Institutes in Latin America and the Caribbeans Increases to 39,” People.cn, January 26, 2018, http://world.people.com.cn/n1/2018/0126/c1002-29788625.htm. [ 黃瀟瀟:〈拉美和加勒比地區孔子學院達39所〉,《人民網》] [In Chinese]

[94] Sharon Weinberger, “China Has Already Won the Drone Wars,” Foreign Policy, May 10, 2018, https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/05/10/china-trump-middle-east-drone-wars/.

[95] Rick Joe, “China’s Air Force on the Rise: Zhuhai Airshow 2018,” The Diplomat, November 13, 2018, https://thediplomat.com/2018/11/chinas-air-force-on-the-rise-zhuhai-airshow-2018/.

[96] Huang Yuxiang 黃宇翔: “Chinese Drones, Whose Target Is America, Stun the Audience at Zhuhai Air Show,” Asia Weekly, November 25, 2018, Issue #46, Vol. 32, https://www.yzzk.com/cfm/blogger3.cfm?id=1542252826622&author=%E9%BB%83%E5%AE%87%E7%BF%94. [黃宇翔:〈中國無人戰機驚豔珠海航展亮相假想敵是美國〉,《亞洲週刊》] [In Chinese]

[97] “Pentagon Says Chinese Vessels Harassed U.S. Ship,” CNN, March 9, 2009, http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/03/09/us.navy.china/index.html.

[98] Barbara Starr, “Chinese Boats Harassed U.S. Ship, Officials Say,” CNN, May 5, 2009, http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/05/05/china.maritime.harassment/index.html.

[99] Barbara Starr, Ryan Browne and Brad Lendon, “Chinese Warship in ‘Unsafe’ Encounter With US Destroyer, Amid Rising US-China Tensions,” CNN, October 1, 2018, https://www.cnn.com/2018/10/01/politics/china-us-warship-unsafe-encounter/index.html.

[100] Military Strategy Research Department of the Academy of Military Science: Strategic Studies, Beijing: Military Science Publishing House, 2013, p. 47. [軍事科學院軍事戰略研究部:《戰略學》(北京:軍事科學出版社,2013)] [In Chinese]

[101] Qiao Liang, “The ‘Belt and Road’ Strategy Must Take Into Consideration the ‘Going Out’ of Military Power,” 81.cn, April 15, 2015, http://www.81.cn/jmywyl/2015-04/15/content_6443998_5.ht. [喬良:〈「一帶一路」戰略要考慮軍事力量走出去問題〉,《中國軍網》] [In Chinese]

[102] Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2018, U.S. Department of Defense, May 16, 2018, https://media.defense.gov/2018/Aug/16/2001955282/-1/-1/1/2018-CHINA-MILITARY-POWER-REPORT.PDF, 46, 47.

[103] Benjamin Haas, “Steve Bannon: ‘We’re Going to War in the South China Sea … No Doubt,’” The Guardian, February 1, 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/feb/02/steve-bannon-donald-trump-war-south-china-sea-no-doubt.

[104] Lawrence Sellin, “The US Needs a New Plan to Address Chinese Power in Southern Asia,” The Daily Caller, June 5, 2018, https://dailycaller.com/2018/06/05/afghanistan-pakistan-america-china/.

[105] Panos Mourdoukoutas, “China Will Lose The South China Sea Game,” Forbes, July 1, 2018, https://www.forbes.com/sites/panosmourdoukoutas/2018/07/01/china-will-lose-the-south-china-sea-game/#5783cad73575.

[106] Michael Lelyveld, “China’s Oil Import Dependence Climbs as Output Falls,” Radio Free Asia, December 4, 2017, https://www.rfa.org/english/commentaries/energy_watch/chinas-oil-import-dependence-climbs-as-output-falls-12042017102429.html.

[107] M. Taylor Fravel, “Why Does China Care So Much about the South China Sea? Here Are 5 Reasons,” The Washington Post, July 13, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/07/13/why-does-china-care-so-much-about-the-south-china-sea-here-are-5-reasons/?utm_term=.4a7b1de04dbd.

[108] Ibid.

[109] Brahma Chellaney, “Why the South China Sea Is Critical to Security,” The Japan Times, March 26, 2018, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2018/03/26/commentary/world-commentary/south-china-sea-critical-security/#.XAnOBBNKiF1.

[110] Scott L. Montgomery, “Oil, History, and the South China Sea: A Dangerous Mix,” Global Policy, August 7, 2018, https://www.globalpolicyjournal.com/blog/07/08/2018/oil-history-and-south-china-sea-dangerous-mix.

[111] Hal Brands, “China’s Master Plan: a Global Military Threat,” The Japan Times, June 12, 2018, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2018/06/12/commentary/world-commentary/chinas-master-plan-global-military-threat/#.W9JPPBNKj5V.

[112] Lin Tinghui, “The Dragon in Strange Waters: China’s Diplomatic Quagmire in the Pacific Islands,” Journal on International Relations, July 2010, Issue #30, p. 58, https://diplomacy.nccu.edu.tw/download.php?filename=451_b9915791.pdf&dir=archive&title=File. [林廷輝,〈龍在陌生海域:中國對太平洋島國外交之困境〉,《國際關係學報》第三十期(2010年7月)] [In Chinese]

[113] Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2018, U.S. Department of Defense, May 16, 2018, https://media.defense.gov/2018/Aug/16/2001955282/-1/-1/1/2018-CHINA-MILITARY-POWER-REPORT.PDF.

[114] Huang Yuxiang, “Chinese Drones, Whose Target Is America, Stun the Audience at Zhuhai Air Show,” Asia Weekly, November 25, 2018, 第32卷 46期,, https://www.yzzk.com/cfm/blogger3.cfm?id=1542252826622&author=%E9%BB%83%E5%AE%87%E7%BF%94. [黃宇翔:〈中國無人戰機驚艷珠海航展亮相假想敵是美國〉,《亞洲週刊》,2018年11月25日, 第32卷 46期] [In Chinese]

[115] David E. Sanger, “U.S. Blames China’s Military Directly for Cyberattacks,” The New York Times, May 6, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/07/world/asia/us-accuses-chinas-military-in-cyberattacks.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&.

[116] See in-depth analysis of this issue by Peter Navarro, director of the White House National Trade Council, in Crouching Tiger: What China’s Militarism Means for the World (New York: Prometheus Books, 2015).

[117] Steven Lee Myers, “With Ships and Missiles, China Is Ready to Challenge U.S. Navy in Pacific,” The New York Times, August 29, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/29/world/asia/china-navy-aircraft-carrier-pacific.html.

[118] See San Renxing, “On the Bloody Company’s (CCP’s) Doomsday Mad Gambling,” The Epoch Times, http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/5/8/1/n1003911.htm [三人行:〈評血腥公司的末日瘋狂賭〉,《大紀元新聞網》] [In Chinese] and http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/5/8/2/n1004823.htm; and Li Tianxiao, “If God Wants the CCP to Die, He Will Make It Mad First,” The Epoch Times, http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/5/8/17/n1021109.htm. [李天笑:〈神要中共亡 必先使其狂〉,《大紀元新聞網》] [In Chinese]

The two speeches allegedly made by the CCP general Chi Haotian (Minister of Defense, 1993-2003), “The War Is Coming to Us” and “The War Is Not Far from Us; It Is the Midwife of the Chinese Century,” appeared on the internet in 2003 and 2005 respectively. While it is difficult to verify their authenticity, critics generally believe that the speeches represent the true mentality of the Chinese Communist Party, and that they were deliberately released to gauge external reactions and intimidate enemies.

[119] Jonathan Watts, “Chinese General Warns of Nuclear Risk to US,” The Guardian, July 15 2005, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/jul/16/china.jonathanwatts.

[120] Michael Pillsbury was surprised to find that, when Chinese scholars assess the country’s power, military strength accounted for less than 10 percent. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the CCP changed its criteria for evaluating strength and incorporated factors such as economy, overseas investment, technological innovation, and natural resources. Michael Pillsbury, The Hundred-Year Marathon: China’s Secret Strategy to Replace America as the Global Superpower, Chapter 2.

Below are references for parts 3-5 in Chapter 18.

1. Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party, “On the Beginnings of the Chinese Communist Party,” Chapter Two, http://www.ninecommentaries.com/english-2

2. Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, Unrestricted Warfare (Beijing: The PLA’s Literature and Art Press, 1999) [喬良、王湘穗:《超限戰》 (北京:解放軍文藝出版社,1999),頁1,頁62]. [In Chinese]

3. Ibid., 6 [喬良、王湘穗:《超限戰》(北京:解放軍文藝出版社,1999),頁1,頁6]. [In Chinese]

4. Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, Unrestricted Warfare and Anti-Unrestricted Warfare: How Will Americans Counter the Chinese New Strategy? (Beijing: Changjiang Literature and Art Press, 2016) [喬良、王湘穗:《超限戰與反超限戰:中國人提出的新戰爭觀美國人如何應對》(北京:長江文藝出版社,2016]. [In Chinese]

5. Louisa Lim and Julia Bergin, “Inside China’s Audacious Global Propaganda Campaign,” The Guardian, December 7, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/dec/07/china-plan-for-global-media-dominance-propaganda-xi-jinping.

6. Mao Zedong, Selected Works on Journalism (Beijing: Xinhua Press) [毛澤東:《毛澤東新聞工作文選》(北京:新華出版社,1983),頁182]. [In Chinese]

7. “The CCP Spends Big Money Expanding Its Overseas Propaganda” [〈重金鋪路中共大外宣海外擴張〉,自由亞洲電臺,2015年11月5日],https://www.rfa.org/cantonese/news/propaganda-11052015084921.html. [In Chinese]

8. “China Spends 10 Billion Dollars on Overseas Propaganda Each Year” [〈中國每年用“100億美元推動外宣攻勢”〉,《BBC中文網》,2016年6月10日],http://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/press_review/2016/06/160610_uk_press_china. [In Chinese.]

9. “Chinese President Xi Jinping Visits With CCTV America via Video Call,” CGTN, February 19, 2016, https://america.cgtn.com/2016/02/19/chinese-president-xi-jinping-visits-with-cctv-america-via-video-call.

10. Yuan Jirong, “Chinese TV Series Are Trendy in Africa,” people.cn [苑基榮:〈中國電視劇熱播非洲大陸〉,《人民日報》,2015年1月5日,第3版],https://web.archive.org/web/20160206004955if_/http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrb/html/2015-01/05/nw.D110000renmrb_20150105_3-03.htm. [In Chinese]

11. Koh Gui Qing and John Shiffman, “Beijing’s Covert Radio Network Airs China-Friendly News Across Washington, and the World,” Reuters, November 2, 2015, https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/china-radio/.

12. Louisa Lim and Julia Bergin, “Inside China’s Audacious Global Propaganda Campaign,” The Guardian, December 7, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/dec/07/china-plan-for-global-media-dominance-propaganda-xi-jinping.

13. James Fallows, “Official Chinese Propaganda: Now Online from the WaPo!” The Atlantic, February 3, 2011, https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2011/02/official-chinese-propaganda-now-online-from-the-wapo/70690/.

14. Donnelle Eller, “Chinese-Backed Newspaper Insert Tries to Undermine Iowa Farm Support for Trump, Trade War,” Des Moines Register, September 24, 2018, https://www.desmoinesregister.com/story/money/agriculture/2018/09/24/china-daily-watch-advertisement-tries-sway-iowa-farm-support-trump-trade-war-tariffs/1412954002/.

15. Bethany Allen-Ebrahimian, “Beijing Builds Its Influence in the American Media,” Foreign Policy, December 21, 2017, https://foreignpolicy.com/2017/12/21/one-of-americas-biggest-chinese-language-newspapers-toes-beijings-party-line-china-influence-united-front/.

16. “‘Occupy Central’ Reveals Red Infiltration, 142 of CCP’s Overseas Media Outlets Get Disclosed,” New Tang Dynasty TV [〈占中揭開紅色滲透 142家海外黨媒體瞬間曝光〉,《新唐人電視台》,2014年10月6日,http://www.ntdtv.com/xtr/gb/2014/10/06/a1143788.html]. [In Chinese]

17. Jeffrey Gil, “Why the NSW Government Is Reviewing Its Confucius Classrooms Program,” The Conversation, May 17, 2018, http://theconversation.com/why-the-nsw-government-is-reviewing-its-confucius-classrooms-program-96783.

18. Alexander Bowe, China’s Overseas United Front Work: Background and Implications for the United States, U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, August 24, 2018, 5–6, https://www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/Research/China%27s%20Overseas%20United%20Front%20Work%20-%20Background%20and%20Implications%20for%20US_final_0.pdf, 14.

19. John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, House of Representatives, https://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180723/CRPT-115hrpt863.pdf.

20. Bowe, China’s Overseas United Front Work: Background and Implications for the United States, 5–6.

21. Thorsten Benner et al., “Authoritarian Advance: Responding to China’s Growing Political Influence in Europe,” Global Public Policy Institute (GPPI), https://www.gppi.net/media/Benner_MERICS_2018_Authoritarian_Advance.pdf.

22. Chinese Influence & American Interests: Promoting Constructive Vigilance (Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press, 2018), https://www.hoover.org/sites/default/files/research/docs/chineseinfluence_americaninterests_fullreport_web.pdf.

23. Jenni Marsh, “Ex-Hong Kong Politician Faces Jail after Bribery Conviction in US,” CNN, December 5, 2018, https://www.cnn.com/2018/12/05/asia/patrick-ho-bribery-conviction-intl/index.html.

24. Alexandra Stevenson, David Barboza, Matthew Goldstein and Paul Mozur, “A Chinese Tycoon Sought Power and Influence. Washington Responded,” The New York Times, December 12, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/12/business/cefc-biden-china-washington-ye-jianming.html.

25. Rona Rui, “Exclusive Interview With Chen Yongling: How the Chinese Communist Party Has Thoroughly Infiltrated Australia,” The Epoch Times, June 19, 2017. [駱亞:〈專訪陳用林:中共全面滲透澳洲內幕〉,《大紀元新聞網》,2017年6月19日],http://www.epochtimes.com.tw/n215385. [In Chinese]

26. Chinese Influence & American Interests: Promoting Constructive Vigilance (Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press, 2018), https://www.hoover.org/sites/default/files/research/docs/chineseinfluence_americaninterests_fullreport_web.pdf.

27. Isaac Stone Fish, “Huawei’s Surprising Ties to the Brookings Institution,” The Washington Post, December 7, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2018/12/08/chinese-companys-surprising-ties-brookings-institution/?utm_term=.2720ba57db52.

28. Margaret Wollensak, “Canadian, UK Universities Warned by Intelligence Agencies to Be Wary of Huawei,” The Epoch Times, December 19, 2018, https://www.theepochtimes.com/universities-warned-to-be-wary-of-research-partnerships-with-huawei_2743679.html

29. Zack Dorfman, “How Silicon Valley Became a Den of Spies,” Politico, July 27, 2018, https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2018/07/27/silicon-valley-spies-china-russia-219071.

30. Bowe, China’s Overseas United Front Work: Background and Implications for the United States, 11–12.

31. Bowe, China’s Overseas United Front Work: Background and Implications for the United States, 10–12.

32. Gao Shan, “China’s Wanda Buys Two US Film Companies for 2 Billion US Dollars,” Radio Free Asia, August 23, 2016 [ 高山:〈中國萬達:20億美元買下美國兩家電影公司〉,自由亞洲電台,2016年8月23日],https://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/jingmao/hc-08232016102649.html. [In Chinese]

33. Cui Peng, “Ali Pictures Invests in Amblin Partners; Ma Yun Makes Investment in Spielberg,” sohu.com, October 9, 2016. [崔鵬:〈阿里影業入股Amblin Partners 馬雲投資斯皮爾伯格〉,《搜狐網》,2016年10月9日],http://www.sohu.com/a/115703678_115565. [In Chinese]

34. Amy Qin and Audrey Carlsen, “How China Is Rewriting Its Own Script,” The New York Times, November 18, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/11/18/world/asia/china-movies.html.

35. Ben Fritz and John Horn, “Reel China: Hollywood Tries to Stay on China’s Good Side,” The Los Angeles Times, March 16, 2011, http://articles.latimes.com/2011/mar/16/entertainment/la-et-china-red-dawn-20110316.

36. Lin Ping, “Disclosing China’s Sharp Power,” “Part Five, American Film and Entertainment Industries,” Radio Free Asia, September 7, 2018 [林坪:〈揭秘中國銳實力(五)美國電影娛樂業〉,自由亞洲電臺,2018年9月7日],https://www.rfa.org/mandarin/zhuanlan/zhuantixilie/zhongguochujiaoshenxiangshijie/yl5-09072018150445.html. [In Chinese]

37. Lin Ping, “Disclosing China’s Sharp Power,” “Part Three: American Universities and Academia,” Radio Free Asia, September 5, 2018 [林坪:〈揭秘中國銳實力(三)美國學術界、高校〉,自由亞洲電臺,2018年9月5日],https://www.rfa.org/mandarin/zhuanlan/zhuantixilie/zhongguochujiaoshenxiangshijie/yl3-09052018122139.html, [In Chinese]

38. “British Conservatives Were Refused Entry to Hong Kong; Johnson Expresses Concern” [〈英保守黨人被拒入境香港 約翰遜表關切〉,《BBC中文網》,2017年10月12日],https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/chinese-news-41591196. [In Chinese]

39. Bowe, China’s Overseas United Front Work: Background and Implications for the United States, 7–8.

40. High-Speed Rail News: A Record of the High-speed Rail Storm (Changsha: Hunan Literature and Art Press, 2015). See chapter 5, “China’s High-Speed Rail Three Kingdom Kills” [高鐵見聞:《高鐵風雲錄》(長沙:湖南文藝出版社,2015),第五章〈中國高鐵三國殺〉]. [In Chinese]

41. Sankei Shimbun, “Japan’s Transfer of Bullet Train Technology a Mistake. China, of Course, Has Copied It,” Japan Forward, August 18, 2017, https://japan-forward.com/japans-transfer-of-bullet-train-technology-a-mistake-china-of-course-has-copied-it/.

42. Paul Mozur and Jane Perlez, “China Bets on Sensitive U.S. Start-Ups, Worrying the Pentagon,” The New York Times, March 22, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/22/technology/china-defense-start-ups.html (last visited February 2, 2019).

43. Ibid.

44. Office of the United States Trade Representative, Executive Office of the President, Update Concerning China’s Acts, Policies and Practices Related to Technology Transfer, Intellectual Property, and Innovation, November 20, 2018, https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/enforcement/301Investigations/301%20Report%20Update.pdf, 46.

45. Justin Ling, “Man Who Sold F-35 Secrets to China Pleads Guilty,” Vice News, March 24, 2016, https://news.vice.com/en_us/article/kz9xgn/man-who-sold-f-35-secrets-to-china-pleads-guilty.

46. Cynthia McFadden, Aliza Nadi and Courtney McGee, “Education or Espionage? A Chinese Student Takes His Homework Home to China,” NBC News, July 24, 2018, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/china/education-or-espionage-chinese-student-takes-his-homework-home-china-n893881.

47. “Chinese Hackers Indicted,” FBI News, December 20, 2018, https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/chinese-hackers-indicted-122018.

48. Zach Dorfman, “How Silicon Valley Became a Den of Spies,” Politico, July 27, 2018, https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2018/07/27/silicon-valley-spies-china-russia-219071.

49. Counterintelligence Strategic Partnership Intelligence Note (SPIN), SPIN: 15-007, FBI, September 2015, https://info.publicintelligence.net/FBI-ChineseTalentPrograms.pdf

50. Lawrence A. Tabak and M. Roy Wilson, “Foreign Influences on Research Integrity,” Presentation at the 117th Meeting of the Advisory Committee to the Director, NIH, December 13, 2018, https://acd.od.nih.gov/documents/presentations/12132018ForeignInfluences.pdf.

51. Lev Facher, “NIH Report Scrutinizes Role of China in Theft of U.S. Scientific Research,” STAT, December 13, 2018, https://www.statnews.com/2018/12/13/nih-report-scrutinizes-role-of-china-in-theft-of-u-s-scientific-research/.

52. Jennifer Zeng, “Communist China Poses Greatest Threat to US and World, Senators Told,” The Epoch Times, updated December 17, 2018, https://www.theepochtimes.com/senate-told-communist-china-poses-greatest-threat-to-us-and-the-world_2738798.html.

53. Keith Bradsher, “When Solar Panels Became Job Killers,” The New York Times, April 8, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/08/business/china-trade-solar-panels.html?_ga=2.209817942.255138535.1542571491-142437734.1525387950.

54. “The National Intelligence Law of the People’s Republic of China”, National People’s Congress Net, June 27, 2017 [《中華人民共和國國家情報法》,《中國人大網》 ,2017年6月27日],http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/xinwen/2017-06/27/content_2024529.htm. [In Chinese]

55. Statement of John C. Demers Before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, for a Hearing on China’s Non-Traditional Espionage Against the United States: The Threat and Potential Policy Responses, U.S. Senate, December 12, 2018, https://www.judiciary.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/12-12-18%20Demers%20Testimony.pdf.

56. Megan Henney, “US Leaders React to Huawei CFO Arrest: ‘A Threat to Our National Security,’” Fox Business, December 6, 2018, https://www.foxbusiness.com/markets/us-leaders-react-to-huawei-cfo-arrest-a-threat-to-our-national-security.

57. Danielle Cave, “The African Union Headquarters Hack and Australia’s 5G Network,” Australian Strategic Policy Institute, July 13, 2018, https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/the-african-union-headquarters-hack-and-australias-5g-network/.

58. Theis Lange Olsen and Cathrine Lakmann, “Huawei Now on the Danish Mark: ‘The Chinese Can Access Systems That Govern Our Society,’” Danish Broadcasting Corporation, December 7, 2018, https://www.dr.dk/nyheder/indland/huawei-nu-paa-dansk-sigtekorn-kineserne-kan-faa-adgang-til-systemer-der-styrer-vores. [In Danish]

59. Tang Ming, “CCP Hackers Feigned Falun Gong Websites; America Calls on China to Observe International Rules,” The Epoch Times, March 16, 2013 [唐銘:〈中共駭客偽裝法輪功網站 美籲中遵守國際規則〉,《大紀元新聞網》,2013年3月16日],http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/13/3/16/n3824225.htm. [In Chinese]

60. “Peter Navarro on China’s National Security Risks to US,” Fox Business, December 13, 2018, https://video.foxbusiness.com/v/5979037938001/?#sp=show-clips.

61. Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, Unrestricted Warfare: China’s Master Plan to Destroy America (2002) (Beijing: The PLA’s Literature and Art Press, 1999). [喬良、王湘穗:《超限戰》(北京:解放軍文藝出版社,1999),頁61]. [In Chinese]

62. Eri Sugiura, “China’s 5G a Bigger Threat than Trade War, Says Ex-Dallas Fed Chief,” Nikkei Asian Review, September 24, 2018, https://asia.nikkei.com/Economy/China-s-5G-a-bigger-threat-than-trade-war-says-ex-Dallas-Fed-chief.

63. Gregg Re, “Trump Declares Opioids From Mexico, China ‘Almost a Form of Warfare,’ Tells Sessions to Sue Drug Makers, Fox News, August 16, 2018, https://www.foxnews.com/politics/trump-declares-opioids-from-mexico-china-almost-a-form-of-warfare-tells-sessions-to-sue-drug-makers.

64. Kirsten D. Madison, “Stopping the Poison Pills: Combatting the Trafficking of Illegal Fentanyl from China,” Prepared Statement Before the Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control,” U.S. Department of State, October 2, 2018, https://www.state.gov/j/inl/rls/rm/2018/286384.htm.

65. Markos Kounalakis, “China Is Using Fentanyl in a Chemical War Against America,” Mcclatchy D.C. Bureau, November 2, 2017, https://www.mcclatchydc.com/opinion/article182139386.html.

66. Anna Fifield, “China’s Row With Sweden Over a ‘Racist’ TV Skit Has Citizens Urging Boycotts of Ikea and H&M,” The Washington Post, September 26, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2018/09/26/chinas-row-with-sweden-over-racist-tv-skit-has-citizens-urging-boycott-ikea-hm/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.15e1b22bc530.

67. Xinmei Shen, “How China’s Army of Online Trolls Turned on Sweden,” Abacus News, September 26, 2018, https://www.abacusnews.com/digital-life/how-chinas-army-online-trolls-turned-sweden/article/2165747.

68. T. Casey Fleming, Eric L. Qualkenbush, and Anthony M. Chapa, “The Secret War Against the United States,” The Cyber Defense Review, Vol. 2, Number 3, Fall 2017, 25–32, https://cyberdefensereview.army.mil/Portals/6/Documents/CDR-FALL2017.pdf.

69. “How the West Got China Wrong,” The Economist, March 1, 2018, https://www.economist.com/leaders/2018/03/01/how-the-west-got-china-wrong.

70. Michael Pillsbury, The Hundred-Year Marathon: China’s Secret Strategy to Replace America as the Global Superpower (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2015), the Introduction.

71. Steve Bannon, “Speech at the 12th Interethnic, Interfaith Leadership Conference,” November 15, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OMp8F2tL66I.